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Chris Busby on GEnomic Instability from Radiation, Japan Genomic Rice Fukushima Fallout

  • Uploaded by Fal2grace on Aug 1, 2013
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Chris Busby explains the dangers of radiation on plants, animals, humans, etc. I've posted this interview a couple of times before, but I thought it was time to give it a little more air time to express the severity of radioactive fallout and gene mutations for Generations - Genetic Instability."Japanese rice is famous for its quality. For many consumers around the world, however, it costs too much. Now Japanese researchers are cross-breeding varieties to create new types that are less expensive, but just as tasty." Genomic Rice Study... instability and radiation. instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed.Genome instability (also "genetic instability" or "genomic instability") refers to a high frequency of mutations within the genome of a cellular lineage. These mutations can include changes in nucleic acid sequences, chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy. Genome instability is central to carcinogenesis[1] but also is a factor in some neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy.The sources of genome instability have only recently begun to be elucidated. A high frequency of externally caused DNA damage[2] can be one source of genome instability since DNA damages can cause inaccurate translesion synthesis past the damages or errors in repair, leading to mutation. Another source of genome instability may be epigenetic reductions in expression of DNA repair genes. Because endogenous (metabolically-caused) DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average more than 10,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells, epigentically reduced DNA repair is likely an important source of genome instability.

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