William I of Scotland

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William the Lion also known as Uilliam Garbh (or the rough). From the House of Dunkeld reigned from 1165 to 1214. Scotland's second longest reign of kings. William received the epithet the Lion through his adoption of a red lion rampant with a forked tail on a yellow background. This rampant is used to this day as the Royal Standard of Scotland and is one of Scotland's most recognisable symbols. William was the second born son of Henry of Scotland and Ada de Warenne. He succeeded to the title of King William I of Scotland on the 9th of December, 1165 after the death of his brother Malcolm the fourth. He was crowned King of Scotland on the 24th of December, 1165 at Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire. William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch who reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from his cousin Henry II of England. William was Earl of Northumberland when his brother Malcolm the IV surrendered what are now the northern counties of England to Henry II in 1157. William's reign saw many attempts to repossess them, including the war of 1173-1174 which ended in Williams capture at the Battle of Alnwick, as a result Henry became overlord of Scotland. Alnwick Castle is used in many television shows and movies today, such as Robin Hood Prince of Thieves, Becket, Mary, Queen of Scots, Count Dracula, A Knight in Camelot, and Harry Potter. William was captured by the English on the 13th of July, 1174 outside of Alnwick Castle at the Battle of Alnwick. William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!". He was taken to Falaise via horseback with his ankles chained. A journey that likely took many weeks. William was held in Normandy while Henry sent an army north and took several Scottish castles, including Berwick and Edinburgh. Since he had no heir, William was forced to bargain for release to prevent the end of the Scottish line of kings. The Treaty of Falaise required William to swear that Scotland would thereafter be subordinate to the English crown. English soldiers were to occupy several key Scottish castles, and Scotland would be taxed heavily for their upkeep. William was forced to observe Henry's overlordship and to obtain permission from the English crown before putting down local uprising. William was released and returned to Scotland on the 11th of December, 1174. He returned to a revolt in Galloway that lasted for 12 years. William gave to his church and lived for his country. Scotland honors him daily with the Royal Standard of Scotland. Movies and stories are written about many people who surrounded William's life. But never has any dedication ever been made for William.

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