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June 11, 2010 — please have a good listen and spread the to anyone living in the area of the spill. Hydrogen sulfide: Toxicity Hydrogen sulfide is considered a broad-spectrum poison, meaning that it can poison several different systems in ...

June 11, 2010 — please have a good listen and spread the info...especially to anyone living in the area of the spill.

Hydrogen sulfide: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen...


Hydrogen sulfide is considered a broad-spectrum poison, meaning that it can poison several different systems in the body, although the nervous system is most affected. The toxicity of H2S is comparable with that of hydrogen cyanide. It forms a complex bond with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes, thereby blocking oxygen from binding and stopping cellular respiration.

Since hydrogen sulfide occurs naturally in the body, the environment and the gut, enzymes exist in the body capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to (harmless) sulfate.[6] Hence, low levels of sulfide may be tolerated indefinitely.

At some threshold level, believed to average around 300--350 ppm, the oxidative enzymes become overwhelmed. Many personal safety gas detectors, such as those used by utility, sewage and petrochemical workers, are set to alarm at as low as 5 to 10 ppm and to go into high alarm at 15 ppm.

An interesting diagnostic clue of extreme poisoning by H2S is the discoloration of copper coins in the pockets of the victim. Treatment involves immediate inhalation of amyl nitrite, injections of sodium nitrite, inhalation of pure oxygen, administration of bronchodilators to overcome eventual bronchospasm, and in some cases hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). HBO therapy has anecdotal support and remains controversial.[7][8][9]

Exposure to lower concentrations can result in eye irritation, a sore throat and cough, nausea, shortness of breath, and fluid in the lungs. These effects are believed to be due to the fact that hydrogen sulfide combines with alkali present in moist surface tissues to form sodium sulfide, a caustic.[10] These symptoms usually go away in a few weeks.

Long-term, low-level exposure may result in fatigue, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, poor memory, and dizziness. Chronic exposure to low level H2S (around 2 ppm) has been implicated in increased miscarriage and reproductive health issues among Russian and Finnish wood pulp workers,[11] but the reports have not (as of circa 1995) been replicated. * 0.00047 ppm is the recognition threshold, the concentration at which 50% of humans can detect the characteristic odor of hydrogen sulfide,[12] normally described as resembling "a rotten egg". * Less than 10 ppm has an exposure limit of 8 hours per day. * 10--20 ppm is the borderline concentration for eye irritation. * 50--100 ppm leads to eye damage. * At 100--150 ppm the olfactory nerve is paralyzed after a few inhalations, and the sense of smell disappears, often together with awareness of danger.[13][14] * 320--530 ppm leads to pulmonary edema with the possibility of death. * 530--1000 ppm causes strong stimulation of the central nervous system and rapid breathing, leading to loss of breathing. * 800 ppm is the lethal concentration for 50% of humans for 5 minutes exposure (LC50). * Concentrations over 1000 ppm cause immediate collapse with loss of breathing, even after inhalation of a single breath.

Benzene: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzene

Benzene Caused Cancer video: /watch?v=_NaJjlbIwTk&feature=youtube_gda­ta

Benzene exposure has serious health effects. The short term breathing of high levels of benzene can result in death, while low levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. The major effects of benzene are chronic (long-term) exposure through the blood. Benzene damages the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. Benzene causes leukemia and is associated with other blood cancers and pre-cancers of the blood. Benzene was first reported to induce cancer in humans in the 1920s. The chemical industry claims it wasn't until 1979 that the cancer inducing properties were determined "conclusively" in humans, despite many references to this fact in the medical literature. Industry exploited this "discrepancy" and tried to discredit animal studies which showed benzene caused cancer saying that they weren't relevant to humans. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a permissible exposure limit of 0.5 part of benzene per million parts of air (.5 ppm) in the workplace during an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. Workers in various industries that make or use benzene may be at risk for being exposed to high levels of this carcinogenic chemical. Industries that involve the use of benzene include the rubber industry, oil refineries, chemical plants.

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