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A Chronology of the Crime:
Genocide in Canada in the Modern Era
1850: The indigenous nations of eastern Canada have been decimated by smallpox and other diseases deliberately introduced by Europeans to barely ten percent of their pre-contact numbers. Indian tribes west of the Great Lakes remain mostly untouched by this plague, except on the west coast, where Europeans are beginning to settle.
1857: The Gradual Civilization Act is passed in the Legislature of Upper Canada, designed to legally eradicate all indigenous nations through â€œenfranchisementâ€, in which land title and nationhood are abolished.
1859: Roman Catholic missions are established at Mission, British Columbia (B.C.) and in the Okanagan by Oblate Bishop Paul Durieu, who with Jesuit helps craft a plan to exterminate non-Christian Indian chiefs and replace them with Catholic-controlled leaders. This â€œDurieu Planâ€ will serve as the model for later Indian residential schools.
1862-3: A major smallpox epidemic among B.C. interior Indian tribes is introduced by Anglican missionary (and future Bishop of Norwich and member of the House of Lords) Rev. John Sheepshanks, who inoculates hundreds of Indians with the disease. Sheepshanks is acting under the direction of the provincial government and the fur trading Hudsonâ€™s Bay Company, which sponsors the first Protestant missions among Indians. More than 90% of Interior Salish and Chilcotin Indians - some 8000 or more people - will die as a result of this germ warfare.
1869-70: The failed uprising by the Metis (mixed blood) of the Red River basin in the central plains under Louis Riel prompts the newly-established Canadian government to establish its sovereignty â€œfrom sea to seaâ€ through a national railway system and massive European immigration onto Indian lands in the west.
1870: The Crown of England establishes a â€œclergy reserveâ€ system whereby Catholic and Anglican missionaries are given hundreds of acres of land stolen from indigenous nations, especially in western Canada.
1873: The Royal North West Mounted Police, the forerunner of the modern day Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), is established as a national paramilitary force with absolute jurisdiction across Canada. Its mandate includes removing all native people onto reservations and clearing a swath of â€œIndian freeâ€ land fifty miles on either side of the westward-expanding Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR).
1876: Under the influence of former Prime Minister, and CPR lawyer, John A. MacDonald, Canada establishes the Indian Act, which reduces all Indians and Metis to the status of non-citizens and legal wards of the Canadian state. Henceforth, natives are imprisoned on â€œreserve landâ€, denied any legal status or civil rights, and cannot vote, sue in court, own property or conduct any actions on their own behalf. Their status as legal wards of the state remains unchanged to the present day.
1886: The CPR is completed, linking Canada from coast to coast and opening the door to massive European immigration. The same year, all west coast traditional native ceremonies are outlawed, including the potlatch system and indigenous languages.
1889: The federal Department of Indian Affairs is established. Indian â€œindustrial schoolsâ€ are sanctioned by the federal government, which, in partnership with Catholic and Protestant churches, jointly funds and establishes internment camps for all native children across Canada.
1891: The first medical report of massive deaths in these schools caused by rampant and untreated tuberculosis is issued to the federal government by Dr. George Orton in Alberta. Ortonâ€™s report is ignored.
1905: Over one hundred Indian boarding schools are in operation across Canada, two thirds of them run by the Roman Catholic church. Massive European immigration and germ warfare have reduced the indigenous populations in the west to less than five percent of their original number.
1907: Dr. Peter Bryce, Chief Medical Officer for the federal governmentâ€™s Department of Indian Affairs (DIA), conducts a national tour of Indian boarding schools to study health conditions. Bryceâ€™s subsequent report to DIA Assistant Superintendent Duncan Campbell Scott documents that over one-half of all the children in these schools are dying because of tuberculosis being deliberately introduced among them by staff. Bryce also claims that the churches running the schools are deliberately suppressing evidence and statistics of these murderous practices.
November 15, 1907: Dr. Bryceâ€™s report is quoted in The Ottawa Citizen and The Montreal Gazette.
1908-9: Duncan Campbell Scott suppresses Dr. Bryceâ€™s report and refuses to act on its recommendations, which include removing the churches from their operating the Indian schools. Bryce issues a more complete report of the enormous death rates in the schools, and Scott commences a smear campaign against Bryce which eventually causes him to be barred from the civil service.
November 1910: Despite Bryceâ€™s findings, Scott institutionalizes church control over the Indian boarding schools through a contract between the federal government and the Catholic, Anglican, Presbyterian and Methodist churches (the latter two being the forerunners of the United Church of Canada). This contract authorizes the schools and provides government funding and protection for them, including the use of the RCMP as the police arm for the schools.
March 1919: Despite soaring death rates in the Indian boarding schools (now called â€œresidential schoolsâ€), under church pressure, D.C. Scott abolishes all federal medical inspection of these schools by terminating the position of Head Medical Inspector.
April 1920: A federal law is passed making it legally mandatory for every Indian child across Canada seven years and older to be incarcerated in Indian residential schools. Non-cooperative native parents face imprisonment and heavy fines. The number of deaths due to tuberculosis among aboriginal people will triple in the following decade.
Spring, 1925: The United Church of Canada is established by a federal Act of Parliament to â€œCanadianize and Christianize &133; the foreign born and heathensâ€. The church is a financially supported arm of the English Crown, and inherits all the residential schools and stolen native land held by the Methodist and Presbyterian churches.
1927: A British Columbia law strips all aboriginal people of the right to hire or consult a lawyer, or represent themselves in court. The same law makes it illegal for any lawyer to assume aboriginal clients.
1928: The Sexual Sterilization Act is passed in the Alberta legislature, allowing any inmate of an Indian residential school to be involuntarily sterilized at the decision of the Principal: a church employee. At least 2800 aboriginal men and women will be made infertile under this law.
1929-30: The government of Canada relinquishes legal guardianship over Indian children in residential schools to the church-appointed school Principal.
1933: An identical Sexual Sterilization Act is passed in the British Columbia legislature. Three sterilization centers are established in heavily-populated native communities: at the R.W. Large (United Church) hospital in Bella Bella; at the Nanaimo Indian Hospital; and at the Charles Camsell (United Church) Indian Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. Thousands of Indians will be sterilized at these facilities until the 1980â€™s.
February 1934: An attempt by the Canadian government to abolish residential schools is defeated as a result of public pressure brought by Catholic and Protestant church officials.
January 1939: Cowichan native children are used in medical experiments conducted by German speaking doctors at the Catholic Kuper Island residential school on Vancouver Island. Several children die as a result. The RCMP suppresses inquiries into the deaths and the German Catholic order running the school, the Montforts, is replaced by the Oblates.
1947-8: Canadian diplomat (and future Prime Minister) Lester Pearson helps to redefine the United Nationâ€™s Genocide Convention to make it inapplicable to Canadian Indian residential schools. Enabling legislation to allow its use within Canada is blocked in Canadaâ€™s Parliament.
1946-52: Hundreds of Nazi and SS doctors are granted citizenship and immigration to Canada under Project Paperclip, and work at Indian hospitals and other facilities under CIA and military sponsorship, including the Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal. Their research includes trauma-based mind control programs, sterilization techniques and pharmacological drug testing on native children, orphans, and many others.
1956-8: Survivors of one such program at the Lincoln Park Royal Canadian Air Force base in Calgary, Alberta describe a doctor with an SS tattoo number on his arm torturing children to death, including aboriginal children brought by RCMP officers from local reserves and residential schools. Similar crimes are described by survivors of programs at military bases at Suffield, Alberta, Nanaimo, BC, and at the Lakehead Psychiatric Hospital at Thunder Bay, Ontario.
1962-71: Thousands of aboriginal children are deliberately stolen from their families under a government-sponsored â€œsixties scoopâ€ program of aggressively destroying native families and continuing the cultural genocide found in residential schools. Many children die in foster homes and in Indian hospitals where they are secretly sent and experimented on, and their cause of death is concealed.
1969: Indian Affairs Minister Jean Chretien affirms a genocidal â€œassimilationistâ€ policy of cultural and legal extinguishment of native nations in a federal â€œWhite Paperâ€ tabled in Parliament.
1970: Widespread aboriginal resistance to the White Paper, and a revolt of native parents at the Bluequills Catholic Indian residential school in St. Paulâ€™s, Alberta - where they take the Indian Agent hostage and demand the removal of nuns and priests from the school - forces the government to begin turning over Indian education to local band councils.
1972: In anticipation of the ending of the residential schools, the Indian Affairs department orders the destruction of all personal files of Indian people, including original land and property deeds. As a result, the written evidence of land holdings and genealogy of countless native families is destroyed, disrupting Indian land claims.
1975: A majority of Indian residential schools have been closed or turned over to band councils to operate. Nevertheless, many of the abuses and crimes against children in these native-run schools continue, at the hands of aboriginal staff. (The last residential school will close in 1996.)
Summer 1978: Red Power, an affiliate of the American Indian Movement (AIM), occupies Indian Affairs offices in Vancouver and publishes records of sterilizations at west coast Indian hospitals. Red Power calls for an abolition of the Indian Act, reservations and the puppet Indian band councils.
1980: In response, the federal government establishes the so-called Assembly of First Nations (AFN) as a state-funded collaborating body consisting of selfappointed and unelected â€œchiefsâ€ from across Canada. The AFN refuses to support indigenous sovereignty or any call to investigate deaths and crimes in Indian residential schools.
October, 1989: Nora Bernard, a residential school survivor from New Brunswick, commences the first lawsuit against the Catholic Church and government of Canada for harm she suffered at a school. Nora will be murdered in December, 2007, just prior to Canadaâ€™s â€œapologyâ€ for Indian residential schools.
1990: In response, Liberal party and government insider â€œChiefâ€ Phil Fontaine of the AFN presents the first official â€œspinâ€ on Indian residential schools by referring to â€œabusesâ€ in the schools while avoiding mention of more serious crimes.
Spring 1993 - January 1995: Native eyewitnesses to murders at the United Churchâ€™s Alberni residential school speak publicly of the deaths of children at the school from the pulpit of Rev. Kevin Annett at St. Andrewâ€™s United Church in Port Alberni, B.C. When Annett challenges a secret land deal in stolen native land between his church, the provincial government and church-funder, MacMillan-Bloedel Ltd., he is fired without cause and eventually expelled from the church without due process.
December 18, 1995: The murder of Indian children at the Alberni residential school receives press coverage for the first time, at a protest organized by Rev. Kevin Annett, in The Vancouver Sun. Eyewitness Harriett Nahanee tells reporters how she witnessed Rev. Alfred Caldwell kick Maisie Shaw, age 14, to her death in 1946.
December 20, 1995: Another eyewitness to murders in United Church Indian schools goes public: Archie Frank from Ahousaht describes Rev. Alfred Caldwell beating a child, Albert Gray, to death. The RCMP refuses to investigate either incident.
February 1, 1996: The first lawsuit by Alberni Indian residential school survivors is brought against the United Church and federal government.
February 3, 1996: The United Church begins internal proceedings to permanently expel Rev. Kevin Annett from church ministry and his livelihood. Annett will be finally expelled in March, 1997, at the only public delisting of a minister in church history, at a cost of $250,000.
1996 - 1998: Kevin Annett begins documenting and making public hundreds of eyewitness accounts of crimes in Indian residential schools, combining first hand testimonies with archival documentation from the University of BC (UBC) library. He begins a doctoral degree at UBC, but sees the breakup of his family, and loses his children in a divorce and custody battle initiated and funded by United Church lawyers.
June 12-14, 1998: Kevin Annett organizes the first independent Tribunal into Canadian Indian residential schools, under the auspices of the United Nations affiliate IHRAAM (International Human Rights Association of American Minorities). The Vancouver event documents that every act defined as genocide by the UN Convention of 1948 occurred in Canadian residential schools. None of the thirty four church and state officials subpoenaed by IHRAAM attend or respond. The Tribunal recommends to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, that a full inquiry into Canadian residential schools be launched, but Robinson does not respond.
June 20, 1998: The Globe and Mail is the only Canadian media to report on the IHRAAM Tribunal.
Autumn 1998: IHRAAM official Rudy James states that the Tribunal was internally sabotaged by operatives, including Jim Craven, Amy Tallio, Kelly White, Dean Wilson and others in the pay of the RCMP and native chiefs linked to the United Church. IHRAAM judges are silenced, and only Kevin Annett and judges Royce and Lydia White Calf issue reports about the findings of the Tribunal.
September 1998: BC Supreme Court Justice Brenner rules that the United Church and government of Canada are equally liable for harm caused by their employees at the Alberni Indian residential schools. The Brenner decision sparks thousands of lawsuits by aboriginal survivors against the government and Catholic, Anglican and United Church.
October 27, 1998: After the sudden deaths of two natives suing the United Church, lawyers for the church admit that the latter has engaged with the government in a joint cover-up of crimes at the Alberni Indian residential school since at least 1960, and that church officials and staff kidnapped children into that school. (The Vancouver Province)
January 1999: The IHRAAM Tribunal and murders in Canadian residential schools are reported for the first time outside Canada, in the pages of the British magazine The New Internationalist. The magazineâ€™s coverage of these crimes and Kevin Annett is silenced the same year by legal threats from United Church lawyers. A general public smear campaign against Kevin Annett is launched, under the direction of United Church officers David Iverson and Brian Thorpe, and Sgt. Paul Willms and Inspector Peter Montague of â€œEâ€ Division of the RCMP.
March 1999: In response to the IHRAAM Tribunal and growing lawsuits by survivors, the Canadian government announces an â€œAboriginal Healing Fundâ€ (AHF) of $350 million. The AHF, however, does not aid survivors but statefavored native chiefs, and is used as a hush fund. Recipients of the fund must agree never to sue the government or churches. More than half of it is consumed in administrative costs.
April 26, 2000: Health Canada officials admit that their department conducted involuntary medical and dental experiments on children in Indian residential schools during the 1940â€™s and â€˜50â€™s, including deliberately denying them dental care and essential food and vitamins. (The Vancouver Sun)
Autumn 2000: Facing more than 10,000 lawsuits from survivors, the churches successfully lobby the government to enact legislation to limit the scope of lawsuits and assume primary liability for residential school damages. Courts in Alberta and the Maritimes deny survivors the right to sue the churches for violation of their civil rights and for genocide.
September 3, 2000: Kevin Annett and native people form the non-governmental Truth Commission into Genocide in Canada. The Commissionâ€™s mandate is to continue the investigative work of the IHRAAM Tribunal into residential schools, publicize the evidence of genocide in Canada, and launch political actions to bring Canada and its churches to justice.
February 1, 2001: Kevin Annett publishes his first book on the Indian residential schools, entitled Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust, containing testimonies from survivors and documentary evidence of intentional genocide in the schools and adjoining Indian hospitals. Efforts by the United Church to prevent its publication fail, and over 1,000 copies are circulated throughout the world, mostly to residential school survivors.
Summer-Fall, 2001: Judicial decisions across Canada restrict the claims of survivors and prevent them from suing the churches for any issues beyond tort offenses of â€œphysical and sexual abuseâ€. In Vancouver, Kevin Annett establishes a weekly program on Co-op radio called â€œHidden from Historyâ€, where he and survivors begin airing the evidence of killings and other crimes in Canadian residential schools. (This program will be unilaterally cancelled and Kevin banned from the government-funded radio station in August, 2010, after Kevin airs evidence of government and police involvement in the murder of women in B.C.)
Spring 2002: After a massive and fraudulent public scare campaign by the churches that they face â€œbankruptcyâ€ because of pending residential school lawsuits, the government assumes full liability for damages, including for compensation payments, despite rulings of Canadian courts that both church and state are equally liable. Many lawsuits are annulled or lumped into class action suits contained and limited by government-allied lawyers like those of the Merchant Law Group.
May 2002: Kevin Annettâ€™s second book, Love and Death in the Valley, is published by Author House in the United States. Kevin and his network begin holding public vigils and protests outside churches in Vancouver. Kevin expands his lecturing and organizing into eastern Canada and the USA.
April 2004: After receiving a Spanish version of Kevin Annettâ€™s book Hidden from History, five Mayan indigenous groups in Guatemala issue a â€œdenunciaâ€, or public demand, to the Canadian government to answer charges of genocide. The government refuses to address genocide in its response, and the Mayans begin to lobby at the U.N. for an investigation into crimes in Canadian Indian residential schools.
April 15, 2005: Kevin Annett and The Truth Commission commence an annual â€œAboriginal Holocaust Remembrance Dayâ€ in Vancouver outside downtown Catholic, Anglican and United churches, calling for these churches to repatriate for a proper burial the remains of children who died under their care. The churches do not respond.
Autumn 2005: Eyewitnesses disclose to Kevin Annett locations of mass burial sites near former Indian residential schools across B.C. In response, Annett and survivors form â€œFriends and Relatives of the Disappearedâ€ (FRD), with supporters in Winnipeg and Toronto. Kevin Annett, Lori Oâ€™Rorke and Louie Lawless commence production of the documentary film â€œUnrepentantâ€ with natives on Vancouver Island. The film is based on Kevinâ€™s work and books, and is the first film ever to document genocide and murder in Canadian Indian residential schools.
October 2006: â€œUnrepentantâ€ is released at Canadian and U.S. film festivals and on the internet. Thousands of DVD copies begin circulating throughout the world and among natives. The film wins Best Director of a Foreign Documentary at the New York Independent Film Festival.
January 2007: â€œUnrepentantâ€ wins Best Documentary at the Los Angeles Independent Film Festival, and receives over 100,000 viewings on the internet. Kevin and the FRD network commence high profile occupations of government and church offices in Vancouver. Similar occupations spread to Toronto and Winnipeg. The Canadian media begin reporting Kevinâ€™s work for the first time in years.
April 15, 2007: The FRDâ€™s Third Aboriginal Holocaust Memorial Day is commemorated in seven Canadian cities. Native Member of Parliament Gary Merasty hears of the events and repeats the FRD demand by asking the federal Minister of Indian Affairs, Jim Prentice, to begin a repatriation program to return children who died in Indian residential schools.
April 19, 2007: Jim Prentice addresses the missing residential school children in a Parliamentary speech, and announces the creation of a â€œMissing Childrenâ€™sâ€™ Task Forceâ€, which is never convened.
April 24, 2007: Based on interviews with Kevin Annett and his network of survivors, The Globe and Mail prints a front page article confirming the fifty percent death rate in residential schools and implies that murders occurred in the schools.
June 2007: Gary Merasty, M.P., retires from politics and begins working for Cameco, a uranium company in Saskatchewan tied to the Liberal party. Jim Prentice is removed as Minister of Indian Affairs.
September 2007: The government announces the creation of a â€œTruth and Reconciliation Commissionâ€ (TRC) to investigate the residential school history, yet denies compensation to more than half of all survivors. Those eligible are entitled to minimal compensation, and in return are forced to indemnify the churches from any legal action or wrongdoing, and are bound by a legal gag order.
January - March 2008: Kevin Annett and the FRD mount escalating protests and church occupations, demanding that criminal charges be brought against the churches responsible for the deaths of residential school children. FRD elder and Squamish Nation chief Kiapilano issues a formal eviction notice to the Catholic, Anglican and United Churches on his traditional territory: all of the city of Vancouver.
February 2008: The Harper government declares that, although â€œenormous numbers of deathsâ€ occurred in Indian residential schools, no criminal charges will be laid against the churches responsible for the schools.
June 11, 2008: Under growing pressure, Prime Minister Steven Harper issues a formal â€œapologyâ€ for Indian residential schools, while seeming to belittle the extent of mortality in the schools by stating simply â€œsome diedâ€. But other party leaders refer to mass graves near the schools.
October 2008: Documents obtained by reporters through Freedom of Information show that the governmentâ€™s supposed â€œMissing Childrenâ€™sâ€™ Task Forceâ€ has never convened, and never intended to publicize any of its research into burial sites or dead children at the residential schools.
January 2009: â€œUnrepentantâ€ has received over a quarter of a million viewings on the internet and wins a third award, Best Canadian Documentary, at the Creation Aboriginal Film Festival in Edmonton. The government announces that TRC Commissioners will be appointed by the churches that ran residential schools, will have no power to subpoena or compel disclosure, cannot lay charges or allow names of wrongdoers to be named, and will not grant immunity to anyone who testifies before them!
March 2009: Kevin Annett and the FRD call on survivors to boycott the TRC and announce their plan to convene an independent inquiry to counter the TRCâ€™s â€œofficial whitewashâ€ of residential school crimes. Kevin is invited by European groups to commence a speaking tour in the fall.
October 2009: Kevin Annett speaks in a dozen cities in Ireland, England and Italy and airs his documentary â€œUnrepentantâ€, which has been translated into French, Italian and German. On October 11, Kevin conducts a memorial service and symbolic exorcism outside the Vatican in Rome, in honor of children killed in Catholic Indian residential schools. The event receives widespread media coverage. The next day, a tornado strikes the centre of Rome and the Vatican.
December 6, 2009: A leader of the FRD in Vancouver, school survivor Johnny â€œBingoâ€ Dawson, dies after a severe beating by police. A coronerâ€™s report is issued five months later, and its stated cause of death does not match the accompanying toxicology report.
February 2010: Widespread exposures of child abuse and cover-up in the Roman Catholic church break into the news. Pope Joseph Ratzinger is found to have organized and ordered the concealment of these crimes and has aided and harbored known child raping priests, in a Vatican document known as â€œCriminales Solicitationsâ€ (see Appendix 9). Legal actions begin to have Ratzinger subpoenaed and even arrested.
April 2010: Kevin Annett conducts a second speaking tour of Europe and makes contact with church abuse survivorsâ€™ groups in Ireland, Germany, Italy and England. He conducts a second exorcism and protest outside the Vatican, and meets with Italian politicians in the Chamber of Deputies. His work is reported even more widely on national TV, radio and newspapers in each nation.
June 15, 2010: The FRD announces the launching of an international coalition to unite all victims of church torture: The International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State (ITCCS). Eight organizations from Ireland, USA, Australia, Thailand and England affiliate to it. But since December, six members of the FRD have died suddenly, including two elders who led occupations against the Roman Catholic church in Vancouver.
August 1-3, 2010: â€œUnrepentantâ€ is broadcast to over 10 million European viewers on German and Swiss television networks. Kevin Annettâ€™s new book, â€œUnrepentant: Disrobing the Emperorâ€ is released in London. But on August 9, Kevinâ€™s nine-year long program â€œHidden from Historyâ€ on the governmentfunded Vancouver Co-op Radio is suddenly cancelled without cause or due process.
September-October 2010: Kevin Annett and ITCCS members speak and rally in London, Dublin, Geneva, Rome and elsewhere, demanding sanctions against the Vatican for its crimes against humanity. Upon his return to Canada, Kevin delivers a 2000 signature petition to the Canadian Parliament, demanding that the federal tax exempt status of the Catholic, Anglican and United Church of Canada be revoked, and that these churches be legally dis-established.
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