Epigenetics Altering You and Your DNA
- uploaded: Feb 10, 2012
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GMO Food has more of an effect than you think!It can literally change your genetic expression!Having VAST effect on your Children and You!Altering your DNA!
In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence - hence the name epi- (Greek: ÎµÏ€Î¯- over, above, outer) -genetics. It refers to functionally relevant modifications to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of such changes are DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, both of which serve to suppress gene expression without altering the sequence of the silenced genes.
In 2011, it was demonstrated that the methylation of mRNA has a critical role in human energy homeostasis. This opened the related field of RNA epigenetics.
These changes may remain through cell divisions for the remainder of the cell's life and may also last for multiple generations. However, there is no change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism; instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently.
One example of epigenetic changes in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells. In other words, a single fertilized egg cell - the zygote - changes into the many cell types including neurons, muscle cells, epithelium, endothelium of blood vessels, etc. as it continues to divide. It does so by activating some genes while inhibiting others.
One example of epigenetic change that can be found in animals can be seen in rat pups. It has been found that when rat mothers give birth to their pups they will clean and groom them, which is a form of tactile stimulation. However it seems that not all mothers groom their young the same way, thus causing us to place them into two groups: High LG mothers and Low LG mothers. The high LG mothers groom and lick their young at a much greater rate than the low LG mothers. As a result it was found that the pups of high LG mothers were healthier, grew at a good rate, and were all around much better off than the pups raised by low LG mothers. Therefore it seems that the way rat pups develop is not exactly genetic, but epigenetic. Further research discovered that the licking of the mother triggers the hippocampus in the rat pup, which then stimulates the hypothalamus, which releases CRF that stimulates the pituitary to release ACTH, which finally causes the adrenal to release glucocorticoids. This cascade of events all caused by the licking and grooming of the mother causes that pup to have decreased CRF expression in the hypothalamus, reduced ACTH and glucocorticoid responses to acute stress, and significantly increased glucocorticoid receptor expression
Hank & his clone Circus Hank explain the power of epigenetics, which studies the factors that determine how much or whether some genes are expressed in your body.
epigenetics, scishow, hank green, dna, genomes, cloning, clone, heredity, epigenome, methyl groups
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