- uploaded: Feb 14, 2012
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Cognitive Enhancers Smart Pills Modafinil Review
College students order modafinil online and review its effects.
Modafinil is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea.The European Medicines Agency has recommended that in Europe it be prescribed only for narcolepsy.
It seems that modafinil, like other stimulants, increases the release of monoamines. However, modafinil also elevates hypothalamic histamine levels, leading some researchers to consider Modafinil a "wakefulness promoting agent" rather than a classic amphetamine-like stimulant. Despite modafinil's histaminergic action, it still partially shares the actions of amphetamine-class stimulants due to its effects on norepinephrine and dopamine.
A National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) study highlighted "the need for heightened awareness for potential abuse of and dependence on modafinil in vulnerable populations" due to the drug's effect on dopamine in the brain's reward center. However, the synergistic actions of modafinil on both catecholaminergic and histaminergic pathways lowers abuse potential as compared to traditional stimulant drugs while maintaining the effectiveness of the drug as a wakefulness promoting agent. Studies have suggested that modafinil "has limited potential for large-scale abuse" and "does not possess an addictive potential in naive individuals."
Modafinil was shown to be an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however in 2006 it was found by the FDA to be unfit for use by children for that purpose. It was rejected primarily due to one suspected case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Cephalon's own label for Provigil now discourages its use by children for any purpose. Other potentially effective, but unapproved targets include the treatment of depression, bipolar depression, opiate & cocaine dependence, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and disease-related fatigue, as well as fatigue that is the side effect of another medication.
Under the US Food and Drug Act, drug companies are not allowed to market their drugs for off-label uses (conditions other than those officially approved by the FDA);Cephalon was reprimanded in 2002 by the FDA because its promotional materials were found to be "false, lacking in fair balance, or otherwise misleading". Cephalon pled guilty to a criminal violation and paid several fines, including $50 and $425 million fines to the U.S. government in 2008 due to its marketing.
Modafinil and its chemical precursor adrafinil were developed by Lafon Laboratories, a French company acquired by Cephalon in 2001. Modafinil is the primary metabolite of adrafinil, and, while its activity is similar, adrafinil requires a higher dose to achieve equipotent effects.
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