Ancient Egypt, Contemporary and Alternative History

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PostSun Jan 09, 2011 1:35 am » by Constabul


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27th Dynasty (525 - 404 BC)

Cambyses II (525-522)
Darius I (521-486)
Xerxes (486-465)
Artaxerxes I (465-424)
Darius II (423-405)
Artaxerxes II (405-359)


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With the conquest of Egypt, the Persian kings became pharaohs, constituting the 27th and 31st dynasties. Cambyses appointed a satrap, Aryandes, who ruled Egypt, Kyrene and Barca from Memphis. Economically the country formed an important part of the empire, being its breadbasket (as it was to be Rome's). It paid the highest tribute of all the Persian satrapies, 700 talents of silver. (Cilicians were taxed 500 talents as were the Lydians, Ionians and Carians 450, Phrygians 350 and Phoenicia, Cyprus and Palestine another 350.) Moreover it was responsible for the upkeep of the occupying army.

Cambyses 525-522 BC

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was the first ruler of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. He was the ruler of Persia and treated the last ruler of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, Psammetichus III (Psamtik III) with some consideration. Psammetichus then tried to revolt and Cambyses caused him to be killed. There is an inscription on a statue that tells of Cambyses going to Sais to worship Neith and restore the revenues and festivals of the temple. But according to Herodotus, Cambyses did many reprehensible things against Egyptian religion and customs and eventually went mad.

In 525 BC the Persian emperor Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, who had already named his son as king of Babylon though Cambyses II resigned that position after only one year, invaded Egypt and successfully overthrew the native Egyptian pharaoh, Psamtek III, last ruler of Egypt's 26th Dynasty to become the first ruler of Egypt's 27th Persian Dynasty. His father had earlier attempted an invasion of Egypt against Psamtek III's predecessor, Amasis, but Cyrus' death in 529 BC put a halt to that expedition.

The empire of Cyrus passed to his son Cambyses (530-522 BC), who was as savage and ugly of temper as Cyrus had been mild and generous. The father had conquered Asia, the son undertook the conquest of Africa. Having skillfully and successfully led his army across the deserts which separate the two continents, Cambyses met and defeated the Egyptians in front of their city at Pelusium in 525 BC just a few weeks after the death of Pharaoh Amasis, when Psammetichus II was king. Cambyses captured Pelusium by using a clever strategy. The Egyptians regarded certain animals, especially cats, as being sacred, and would not injure them on any account. Cambyses had his men carry the `sacred' animals in front of them to the attack. The Egyptians did not dare to shoot their arrows for fear of wounding the animals, and so Pelusium was stormed successfully. After the taking of the city Cambyses seized the opportunity to show his contempt of the Egyptians. He himself carried a cage of cats in front of him upon his horse, and hurled them with insulting taunts and laughter, in to the faces of his foes.

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After capturing Egypt, Cambyses took the Throne name Mesut-i-re (Mesuti-Ra), meaning "Offspring of Ra". Though the Persians would rule Egypt for the next 193 years until Alexander the Great defeated Darius III and conquered Egypt in 332 BC, Cambyses II's victory would bring to an end (for the most part) Egyptians truly ruling Egyptians until the mid 20th century, when Egypt finally shrugged off colonial rule.

We know very little about Cambyses II through contemporary texts, but his reputation as a mad tyrannical despot has come down to us in the writings of the Greek historian Herodotus (440 BC) and a Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' which speaks of the Persian king destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods. However, it must be repeatedly noted that the Greeks shared no love for the Persians. Herodotus informs us that Cambyses II was a monster of cruelty and impiety.

Herodotus gives us three tales as to why the Persians invaded Egypt. In one, Cambyses II had requested an Egyptian princess for a wife, or actually a concubine, and was angered when he found that he had been sent a lady of second rate standing. In another, it turns out that he was the bastard son of Nitetis, daughter of the Saite (from Sais) king Apries, and therefore half Egyptian anyway, whereas the third story provides that Cambyses II, at the age of ten, made a promise to his mother (who is now Cassandane) that he would "turn Egypt upside down" to avenge a slight paid to her. However, Ctesias of Cnidus states that his mother was Amytis, the daughter of the last king of independent Media so we are really unsure of that side of his parentage. While even Herodotus doubts all of these stories, and given the fact that his father had already planned one invasion of Egypt, the stories do in fact reflect the later Greek bias towards his Persian dynasty.

Regardless of Cambyses II's reason for his invasion of Egypt, Herodotus notes how the Persians easily entered Egypt across the desert. They were advised by the defecting mercenary general, Phanes of Halicarnassus, to employ the Bedouins as guides. However, Phanes had left his two sons in Egypt. We are told that for his treachery, as the armies of the Persians and the mercenary army of the Egyptians met, his sons were bought out in front of the Egyptian army where they could be seen by their father, and there throats were slit over a large bowl. Afterwards, Herodotus tells us that water and wine were added to the contents of the bowl and drunk by every man in the Egyptian force.

This did not stop the ensuing battle at Pelusium, Greek pelos, which was the gateway to Egypt. Its location on Egypt's eastern boundary, meant that it was an important trading post was well and also of immense strategic importance. It was the starting point for Egyptian expeditions to Asia and an entry point for foreign invaders.

Here, the Egyptian forces were routed in the battle and fled back to Memphis. Apparently Psamtek III managed to escape the ensuing besiege of the Egyptian capital, only to be captured a short time afterwards and was carried off to Susa in chains. Herodotus goes on to tell us of all the outrages that Cambyses II then inflicted on the Egyptians, not only including the stabbing of a sacred Apis bull and his subsequent burial at the Serapeum in Saqqara, but also the desecration and deliberate burning of the embalmed body of Amasis (a story that has been partly evidenced by destruction of some of Amasis' inscriptions) and the banishment of other Egyptian opponents.

The story of Cambyses II's fit of jealousy towards the Apis bull, whether true or simply Greek propaganda, was intended to reflect his personal failures as a monarch and military leader. In the three short years of his rule over Egypt he personally led a disastrous campaign up the River Nile into Ethiopia. There, we are told, his ill-prepared mercenary army was so meagerly supplied with food that they were forced to eat the flesh of their own colleagues as their supplies ran out in the Nubian desert. The Persian army returned northwards in abject humiliation having failed even to encounter their enemy in battle.

Then, of course, there is also the mystery of his lost army, some fifty thousand strong, that vanished in the Western Desert on their way to the Siwa Oasis along with all their weapons and other equipment, never to be heard of again. Cambyses II had also planned a military campaign against Carthage, but this too was aborted because, on this occasion, the king's Phoenician sea captains refused to attack their kinfolk who had founded the Carthagian colony towards the end of the 8th century BC. In fact, the conquest of Egypt was Cambyses' only spectacular military success in his seven years of troubled rule over the Persian empire.

However, we are told that when the Persians at home received news of Cambyses' several military disasters, some of the most influential nobles revolted, swearing allegiance to the king's younger brother Bardiya. With their support, the pretender to the great throne of Cyrus seized power in July 522 BC as Cambyses II was returning home.

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The story is told that, on hearing of this revolt, and in haste to mount his horse to swiftly finish the journey home, Cambyses II managed to stab himself in the thigh with his own dagger. At that moment, he began to recall an Egyptian prophecy told to him by the priests of Buto in which it was predicted that the king would die in Ecbatana. Cambyses II had thought that the Persian summer capital of Ecbatana had been meant and that he would therefore die in old age. But now he realized that the prophecy had been fulfilled in a very different way here in Syrian Ecbatana.

Still enveloped in his dark and disturbed mood, Cambyses II decided that his fate had been sealed and simply lay down to await his end. The wound soon became gangrenous and the king died in early August of 522 BC. However, it should be noted that other references tell us that Cambyses II had his brother murdered even prior to his expedition to Egypt, but apparently if it was not Bardiya (though there is speculation that Cambyses II's servants perhaps did not kill his brother as ordered), there seems to have definitely been an usurper to the throne, perhaps claiming to be his brother, who we are told was killed secretly.

Modern Egyptologists believe that many of these accounts are rather biased, and that Cambyses II's rule was perhaps not nearly so traumatic as Herodotus, who wrote his history only about 75 years after Cambyses II's demise, would have us believe. In reality, the Saite dynasty had all but completely collapsed, and it is likely that with Psamtek III's (Psammetichus III) capture by the Persians, Cambyses II simply took charge of the country. The Egyptians were particularly isolated at this time in their history, having seen there Greek allies defect, including not only Phanes, but Polycrates of Samos. In addition, many of Egypt's minorities, such as the Jewish community at Elephantine and even certain elements within the Egyptian aristocracy, seem to have even welcomed Cambyses II's rule.

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A depiction of Cambyses II worshipping the Apris Bull

The Egyptian evidence that we do have depicts a ruler anxious to avoid offending Egyptian susceptibilities who at least presented himself as an Egyptian king in all respects. It is even possible that the pillaging of Egyptian towns told to us by Greek sources never occurred at all. In an inscription on the statue of Udjadhorresnet, a Saite priest and doctor, as well as a former naval officer, we learn that Cambyses II was prepared to work with and promote native Egyptians to assist in government, and that he showed at least some respect for Egyptian religion. For example, regardless of the death of the Apris Bull, it should be noted that the animal's burial was held with proper pomp, ceremony and respect. Indeed, Cambyses II continued Egyptian policy regarding sanctuaries and national cults, confirmed by his building work in the Wadi Hammamat and at a few other Egyptian temples.

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The statue recording the autobiography of Udjadhorresnet

Udjadhorresnet goes on to say in his autobiography written on a naophorous statue now in the Vatican collection at Rome, that he introduced Cambyses II to Egyptian culture so that he might take on the appearance of a traditional Egyptian Pharaoh.

However, even though Cambyses II had his name written in a kingly Egyptian cartouche, he did remained very Persian, and was buried at Takht-i-Rustam near Persepolis (Iran). It has been suggested that Cambyses II may have originally followed a traditional Persian policy of reconciliation in the footsteps of their conquests. In deed, it may be that Cambyses II's rule began well enough, but with the his defeats and losses, his mood may very well have turned darker with time, along with his actions.

We do know that there was a short lived revolt which broke out in Egypt after Cambyses II died in 522 BC, but the independence was lost almost immediately to his successor, a distant relative and an officer in Cambyses II's army, named Darius. The dynasty of Persian rulers who then ruled Egypt did so as absentee landlords from afar.

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The unfinished tomb of Cambyses II in Iran

The Lost Army of Cambyses II
Within recent years all manner of artifacts and monuments have been discovered in Egypt's Western Desert. Here and there, new discoveries of temples and tombs turn up, even in relatively inhabited areas where more modern structures are often difficult to distinguish from ancient ruins. It is a place where the shifting sands can uncover whole new archaeological worlds, and so vast that no more than very small regions are ever investigated systematically by Egyptologists. In fact, most discoveries if not almost all are made by accident, so Egypt antiquity officials must remain ever alert to those who bring them an inscribed stone unearthed beneath a house, or a textile fragment found in the sand.

Lately, there has been considerable petroleum excavation in the Western Desert. Anyone traveling the main route between the near oasis will see this activity, but the exploration for oil stretched much deeper into the Western Desert. It is not surprising that they have come upon a few archaeological finds, and it is not unlikely that they will come across others. Very recently, when a geological team from the Helwan University geologists found themselves walking through dunes littered with fragments of textiles, daggers, arrow-heads, and the bleached bones of the men to whom all these trappings belonged, they reported the discovery to the antiquity service.

Mohammed al-Saghir of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) now believes that this accidental find may very well be at least remnants of the mysterious Lost Army of Cambyses II, and he is now organizing a mission to investigate the site more thoroughly. If he is successful and the discovery is that of Cambyses II's50,000 strong lost army, than it will not only answer some ancient mysteries, but will probably also provide us with a rich source of information on the Persian military of that time, and maybe even expand our knowledge of Cambyses II himself.

The Persian armed forces consisted of many elements, including companies of foreign mercenaries such as Greeks, Phoenicians, Carians, Cilicians, Medes and Syrians. Hence, if this is not another false lead, we may expect excellent preservation of helmets, leather corselets, cloth garments, spears, bows, swords and daggers ­ a veritable treasure trove of military memorabilia. The rations and support equipment will all be there, ready for detailed analysis.

However, it should be noted that some Egyptologists question the very existence of such an army, rather believing that the whole affair was simply a fable told by a very prejudiced Greek.

Yet if true, Cambyses II probably sent his army to Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert to seek (or seize) legitimization of his rule from the oracle of Amun, much as Alexander the Great would do in the 4th century BC. However, the army was overtaken by a sandstorm and buried. For centuries adventurers and archaeologists have tried to find the lost army, and at times, tantalizing, though usually false glues have been discovered.

Legitimizing his rule does not fully explain the need for taking such a large army to the Siwa Oasis. Accounts and other resources provide that the priests of the oracle were perhaps posing a danger to Cambyses II's rule, probably encouraging revolt among the native Egyptians. Perhaps the priests felt slighted that Cambyses II had not immediately sought their approval as Alexander the Great would do almost upon his arrival in Egypt. Therefore, it is likely that Cambyses II intended to forces their legitimization of his rule. In fact, some sources believe that his intent was to simply destroy the Oasis completely for their treachery, while it is also know that the army was to continue on after Siwa in order to attack the Libyans.

Yet the Siwa Oasis, the western most of Egypt's Oasis, is much deeper into the desert than others, such as Bahariya, and apparently, like many of Cambyses II's military operations, this one too was ill conceived. Why he so easily entered Egypt with the help of the Bedouins, and than sent such a large force into the desert only to be lost is a mystery.

We know that the army was dispatched from the holy city of Thebes, supported by a great train of pack animals. After a seven day march, it reached the Kharga Oasis and moved on to the last of the near Oasis, the Bahariya, before turning towards the 325 kilometers of desert that separated it from the Siwa Oasis. It would have been a 30 day march through burning heat with no additional sources of water or shade.

According to Herodotus (as later reported to him by the inhabitants of Siwa), after many days of struggle through the soft sand, the troops were resting one morning when calamity struck without warning. "As they were at their breakfast, a wind arose from the south, strong and deadly, bringing with it vast columns of whirling sand, which buried the troops and caused them utterly to disappear." Overwhelmed by the powerful sandstorm, men and animals alike were asphyxiated as they huddled together, gradually being enveloped in a sea of drift-sand.

It was after learning of the loss of his army that, having witnessed the reverence with which the Egyptians regarded the sacred Apis bull of Memphis in a ceremony and believing he was being mocked, he fell into a rage, drew his dagger and plunged it into the bull-calf. However, it seems that he must have latter regretted this action, for the Bull was buried with due reverence.

Cambyses left no heirs, and Darius I, one of his generals, fought his way to sovereignty against many rivals.

Darius I 520-486 BC
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Darius I - Darius The Great - was the second ruler of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. He was king of Persia in 522-486 BC, one of the greatest rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty, who was noted for his administrative genius and for his great building projects. Darius attempted several times to conquer Greece; his fleet was destroyed by a storm in 492, and the Athenians defeated his army at Marathon in 490.

Ascension to monarchy

Darius was the son of Hystaspes, the satrap (provincial governor) of Parthia. The principal contemporary sources for his history are his own inscriptions, especially the great trilingual inscription on the Bisitun (Behistun) rock at the village of the same name, in which he tells how he gained the throne. The accounts of his accession given by the Greek historians Herodotus and Ctesias are in many points obviously derived from this official version but are interwoven with legends.

According to Herodotus, Darius, when a youth, was suspected by Cyrus II the Great (who ruled from 559 to 529 BC) of plotting against the throne. Later Darius was in Egypt with Cambyses II, the son of Cyrus and heir to his kingdom, as a member of the royal bodyguard. After the death of Cambyses in the summer of 522 BC, Darius hastened to Media, where, in September, with the help of six Persian nobles, he killed Bardiya (Smerdis), another son of Cyrus, who had usurped the throne the previous March.

In the Bisitun inscription Darius defended this deed and his own assumption of kingship on the grounds that the usurper was actually Gaumata, a Magian, who had impersonated Bardiya after Bardiya had been murdered secretly by Cambyses. Darius therefore claimed that he was restoring the kingship to the rightful Achaemenid house. He himself, however, belonged to a collateral branch of the royal family, and, as his father and grandfather were alive at his accession, it is unlikely that he was next in line to the throne. Some modern scholars consider that he invented the story of Gaumata in order to justify his actions and that the murdered king was indeed the son of Cyrus.

Darius did not at first gain general recognition but had to impose his rule by force. His assassination of Bardiya was followed, particularly in the eastern provinces, by widespread revolts, which threatened to disrupt the empire. In Susiana, Babylonia, Media, Sagartia, and Margiana, independent governments were set up, most of them by men who claimed to belong to the former ruling families. Babylonia rebelled twice and Susiana three times.

In Persia itself a certain Vahyazdata, who pretended to be Bardiya, gained considerable support. These risings, however, were spontaneous and uncoordinated, and, notwithstanding the small size of his army, Darius and his generals were able to suppress them one by one. In the Bisitun inscription he records that in 19 battles he defeated nine rebel leaders, who appear as his captives on the accompanying relief. By 519 BC, when the third rising in Susiana was put down, he had established his authority in the east.

In 518 Darius visited Egypt, which he lists as a rebel country, perhaps because of the insubordination of its satrap, Aryandes, whom he put to death.

Fortification of the empire

Having restored internal order in the empire, Darius undertook a number of campaigns for the purpose of strengthening his frontiers and checking the incursions of nomadic tribes. In 519 BC he attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea and a few years later conquered the Indus Valley.

In 513, after subduing eastern Thrace and the Getae, he crossed the Danube River into European Scythia, but the Scythian nomads devastated the country as they retreated from him, and he was forced, for lack of supplies, to abandon the campaign.

The satraps of Asia Minor completed the subjugation of Thrace, secured the submission of Macedonia, and captured the Aegean islands of Lemnos and Imbros. Thus, the approaches to Greece were in Persian hands, as was control of the Black Sea grain trade through the straits, the latter being of major importance to the Greek economy.

The conquest of Greece was a logical step to protect Persian rule over the Greeks of Asia Minor from interference by their European kinsmen. According to Herodotus, Darius, before the Scythian campaign, had sent ships to explore the Greek coasts, but he took no military action until 499 BC, when Athens and Eretria supported an Ionian revolt against Persian rule.

After the suppression of this rebellion, Mardonius, Darius' son-in-law, was given charge of an expedition against Athens and Eretria, but the loss of his fleet in a storm off Mount Athos (492 BC) forced him to abandon the operation. In 490 BC another force under Datis, a Mede, destroyed Eretria and enslaved its inhabitants but was defeated by the Athenians at Marathon. Preparations for a third expedition were delayed by an insurrection in Egypt, and Darius died in 486 BC before they were completed.

Darius as an administrator

Although Darius consolidated and added to the conquests of his predecessors, it was as an administrator that he made his greatest contribution to Persian history. He completed the organization of the empire into satrapies, initiated by Cyrus the Great, and fixed the annual tribute due from each province. During his reign, ambitious and far-sighted projects were undertaken to promote imperial trade and commerce.

Coinage, weights, and measures were standardized and land and sea routes developed. An expedition led by Scylax of Caryanda sailed down the Indus River and explored the sea route from its mouth to Egypt, and a canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea, probably begun by the chief of the Egyptian delta lords, Necho I (7th century BC), was repaired and completed.

While measures were thus taken to unite the diverse peoples of the empire by a uniform administration, Darius followed the example of Cyrus in respecting native religious institutions. In Egypt he assumed an Egyptian titulary and gave active support to the cult. He built a temple to the god Amon in the Kharga oasis, endowed the temple at Edfu, and carried out restoration work in other sanctuaries.

He empowered the Egyptians to reestablish the medical school of the temple of Sais, and he ordered his satrap to codify the Egyptian laws in consultation with the native priests. In the Egyptian traditions he was considered as one of the great lawgivers and benefactors of the country. In 519 BC he authorized the Jews to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem, in accordance with the earlier decree of Cyrus. In the opinion of some authorities, the religious beliefs of Darius himself, as reflected in his inscriptions, show the influence of the teachings of Zoroaster, and the introduction of Zoroastrianism as the state religion of Persia is probably to be attributed to him.

Darius was the greatest royal architect of his dynasty, and during his reign Persian architecture assumed a style that remained unchanged until the end of the empire. In 521 BC he made Susa his administrative capital, where he restored the fortifications and built an audience hall (apadana) and a residential palace.

The foundation inscriptions of his palace describe how he brought materials and craftsmen for the work from all quarters of the empire. At Persepolis, in his native country of Fars (Persis), he founded a new royal residence to replace the earlier capital at Pasargadae.

The fortifications, apadana, council hall, treasury, and a residential palace are to be attributed to him, although not completed in his lifetime. He also built at Ecbana and Babylon.

Darius died while preparing a new expedition against the Greeks; his son and successor, Xerxes I, attempted to fulfill his plan.

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Tomb of Darius

Xerxes I Pharaoh, The Great (486-466 BC)
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Xerxes I - (Xerxes the Great) (zûrk´sz) - was the third ruler of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. His name in Old Persian is Khshayarsha, in the Bible Ahasuerus.

Xerxes became king of Persia at the death of his father Darius the Great in 485, at a time when his father was preparing a new expedition against Greece and had to face an uprising in Egypt. According to Herodotus, the transition was peaceful this time.

Because he was about to leave for Egypt, Darius, following the law of his country had been requested to name his successor and to choose between the elder of his sons, born from a first wife before he was in power, and the first of his sons born after he became king, from a second wife, Atossa, Cyrus' daughter, who had earlier been successively wed to her brothers Cambyses and Smerdis, and which he had married soon after reaching power in order to confirm his legitimacy. Atossa was said to have much power on Darius and he chosed her son Xerxes for successor. When his father died, in 486 BC, Xerxes was about 35 years old and had already governed Babylonia for a dozen years.

One of his first concerns upon his accession was to pacify Egypt, where a usurper had been governing for two years. But he was forced to use much stronger methods than had Darius. In 484 BC he ravaged the Delta and chastised the Egyptians.

Xerxes then learned of the revolt of Babylon, where two nationalist pretenders had appeared in swift succession. The second, Shamash-eriba, was conquered by Xerxes' son-in-law, and violent repression ensued: Babylon's fortresses were torn down, its temples pillaged, and the statue of Marduk destroyed; this latter act had great political significance.

Xerxes was no longer able to "take the hand of" (receive the patronage of) the Babylonian god. Whereas Darius had treated Egypt and Babylonia as kingdoms personally united to the Persian Empire (though administered as satrapies), Xerxes acted with a new intransigence.

Having rejected the fiction of personal union, he then abandoned the titles of king of Babylonia and king of Egypt, making himself simply "king of the Persians and the Medes.² It was probably the revolt of Babylon, although some authors say it was troubles in Bactria, to which Xerxes alluded in an inscription that proclaimed: "And among these countries (in rebellion) there was one where, previously, daevas had been worshipped. Afterward, through Ahura Mazda's favour, I destroyed this sanctuary of daevas. Let daevas not be worshipped. There, where daevas had been worshipped before, I worshipped Ahura Mazda."

Xerxes thus declared himself the adversary of the daevas, the ancient pre-Zoroastrian gods, and doubtlessly identified the Babylonian gods with these fallen gods of the Aryan religion. The questions arise of whether the destruction of Marduk's statue should be linked with this text proclaiming the destruction of the daeva sanctuaries, of whether Xerxes was a more zealous supporter of Zoroastrianism than was his father, and, indeed, of whether he himself was a Zoroastrian.

It is said that the slaves' lives were much harder during the time of Xerxes. It is not certain whether this is true since Xerxes was much more involved elsewhere and paid little attention to Egypt.

During his reign he put down uprisings in both Egypt and Babylon, but his efforts to invade Europe were thrown back by Greece in 480.

Xerxes was assassinated in 465 BC. Some believe that it was his son who had him assassinated, but there is no proof.

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Xerxes' Hall of the 100 Columns is the most impressive
building in the Persepolis Complex. jumble of fallen
columns, column heads, and column bases.

Artaxerxes I (465-424 BC)
The king of ancient Persia (464-425 BC), of the dynasty of the Achaemenis. Artaxerxes is the Greek form of ³Ardashir the Persian.² He succeeded his father, Xerxes I , in whose assassination he had no part. The later weakness of the Persian Empire is commonly traced to the reign of Artaxerxes, and there were many uprisings in the provinces.

The revolt of Egypt, aided by the Athenians, was put down (c.455 BC) after years of fighting, and Bactria was pacified. The Athenians sent a fleet under Cimon to aid a rebellion of Cyprus against Persian rule.

The fleet won a victory, but the treaty negotiated by Callias was generally favorable to Persia. Important cultural exchanges occurred between Greece and Persia during Artaxerxes' reign. He was remembered warmly in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah because he authorized their revival of Judaism.

Darius II (424-405 BC)
Darius II was the fifth king of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. 404 B.C., king of ancient Persia (423?­404 B.C.); son of Artaxerxes I and a concubine, hence sometimes called Darius Nothus [Darius the Bastard].

His rule was not popular or successful, and he spent most of his reign in quelling revolts in Syria, Lydia (413), and Media (410).

He lost Egypt (410), but through the diplomacy of Pharnabazus, Tissaphernes, and Cyrus the Younger he secured much influence in Greece in the Peloponnesian War.
He died in the spring of 404 BC.

Artaxerxes II
succeeded Darius, but the succession was challenged by Cyrus the Younger.
During his reign, he did some work on the temple of Amun is the Kharga oasis.
There were also many foreigners in Egypt during this time, mostly Greeks and Jews.

28th Dynasty (404-398 BC)

Amenirdis (Amyrtaeus) (404-399)
Amyrtaios was the only ruler of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty. He is thought to have been a Libyan. He ruled Egypt from Sais for six years. He began his reign after the death of Darius II when there was a renewed revolt in Egypt. They achieved independence for a short time again. On the Elephantine Papyri, there is documentation of a loan contract that is written in the year 5 of this king. This is indication that he was recognized in Upper and Lower Egypt. He must have driven the Persians out of the whole country.

29th Dynasty (399-380 BC)
Nefaarud I (Nepherites I) (399-393)
Psammuthis Userre Setepenptah Pasherienmut (ca. 392)
Hakor Khnemmaere Setpenkhnum (Achoris) (392-380)
Nefaarud II (Nepherites II) (380)

Nepherites I was the first ruler of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. Nepherites I sent a gift to the Spartans after an allegiance had been entered into with Sparta against Persia. This gift was lost to the Persians after the ships from Egypt approached Rhodes. The Egyptians did not know that the Rhodians had defected to the Persians.

Psammuthis was an Egyptian Pharaoh of the Twenty-ninth dynasty during 393 BC. Upon the death of Nepherites I, two rival factions fought for the throne: one supported Muthis son of Nefaarud, and the other supported an usurper named Psammuthes. Both men were, however, overcome by an unrelated man named Hakor.

Hakoris - Hakor - Achoris - Hagor - 393-380 BC
There is some discrepancy as to whether Hakoris was the second of the third king of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. Psammuthis is the king in which the confusion is associated with because he is shown to have ruled during the same year as Hakoris (393 BC). Hakoris reigned for thirteen years and built many monuments which are found in all parts of Egypt. During his reign there was peace between Persia and Sparta. Persia was free to move against Egypt and there was a three-year war between the two. Egypt was relatively strong during this time and became allies with Cyprus. Egypt was delivered from Persia. The tomb of Hakoris has not been found.

Nepherites II was the fourth and final ruler of the Twenty-ninth Dynasty. He reigned for only four months before he was overthrown by the founder of the Thirtieth Dynasty. He assumed the throne after the death of Hakoris, who was Nepherites' father. The name Nepherites has an etymological meaning of "His great ones are prosperous".

30th Dynasty (380-343 BC)
Nakhtnebef Kheperkare (Nectanebo I) (380-362)
Djedhor (362-360)
Nekhtharehbe Snedjemibre Setpenanhur (Nectanebo II) (360-343)


The 30th Dynasty contains the last of the Egyptian-born Pharaohs.

Nectanebo I - Nectanebus - Nakhthorhebe - 380-362 B.C.
was the first ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty and was a general from Sebennytus. He is thought to have been related to the family of Nepherites I. He imposed heavy taxes on the people of Egypt in order to conquer Syria from Persia. In the spring of 373 BC, the Persian army moved in to attack Egypt. They got as far as the Mendesian mouth of the Nile. Two of the commanders of the Persian forces could not agree on their strategy. As the time passed, the Nile rose and flooded the Delta area. The Persians abandoned their efforts and left. The Egyptians had successfully turned back the Persians, with a little help from the Nile, and peace was established. Nectanebo restored and built many monuments throughout Egypt.380-362

Teos - Tachos - Djeho - 365-360 B.C
Teos was the second ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty and was the son of his predecessor, Nectanebo I. After his father had died, Teos took over the throne and planned an attack on the Persians. He had the help of mercenaries from Greece, but his own generals disagreed with his leadership and the entire event was a fiasco. He was deserted by both the Greeks and the Egyptians. He fled to Persia by way of Arabia and Artaxerxes II, the ruler of Persia, gave him refuge. He lived in Persia until his death.

Nectanebo II - Nectanebus - Nekhthorhebe - 360-343 BC
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Nectanebo II was the third and final ruler of the Thirtieth Dynasty. He became king after Teos' campaign into Persia which was a disaster. Teos had fled to Persia and Nectanebo returned to Egypt as Pharaoh. Nectanebo ruled for eighteen years and built many monuments in Egypt.

Much of Nectanebo's reign was peaceful and there was a final flowering of the local Egyptian arts. Statues were erected at Abydos and Bubastis, a granite temple was built at Horbeit in the Delta and bas-reliefs were carved at Karnak with a purity of style comparable to that of the Saite renaissance.

After the disaster with the Persians, Nectanebo II risked no further expeditions against the Syrians or the Palestinians. However, the Persians did attempt to subdue Egypt and this time succeeded. Cyprus and Phoenicia were also fighting against the Persians and were assisted with some troops from Nectanebo II.

Artaxerxes III (Persian) destroyed these troops and moved against Egypt. This time the Nile flooding had already passed and the Persian attack was made much more wisely that the last attack (Nectanebo I). The attack was made at three different points at the same time. Nectanebo II retreated to Memphis where he thought he would make a stand against the Persians. But, as city after city fell, he gathered up as much of his possessions as he could and fled to Ethiopia.

Artaxerxes razed fortifications, desecrated temples and plundered the treasury. He appointed Pherendares as satrap of Egypt and returned to Babylon laden with treasures.

31st Dynasty (343-332 BC)

Artaxerxes III (343-338)
Arses (338-336)
Darius III (336-332)


Ochus (Artaxerxes III) (343-338 BC)
Ochus was the first ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty. He was the king of Persia for twenty years when the Persians defeated the Egyptians and Ochus became ruler over Egypt. He was the son of Artaxerxes II. He ruled over Egypt for six years. He was murdered in 338 BC by his own commander Bagoas in the summer of 338 BC.

Arses - (360-343 BC)
Arses was the second ruler of the Thirty-first Dynasty and was the youngest son of Ochus. After Ochus was murdered, Arses succeeded him and ruled until he was murdered in 336 BC by his commander Bagoas.

Darius III Codomannus (335-332 BC)
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Darius III - king of ancient Persia. A cousin of Artaxerxes III, he was raised to the throne by the eunuch Bagoas, who had murdered both Artaxerxes and his son, Arses; Darius in turn murdered Bagoas. His rule was not stable, however. When Alexander the Great invaded Persia, Darius was defeated in the battle of Issus (333 BC) and again in the battle of Gaugamela near Arbela (331 BC). For the first time Persia was confronted by a united Greece, and Darius' greatest error was in underestimating Alexander's strength. Darius used the wrong tactics in battle and was forced to flee to Ecbatana and then eastward to Bactria. It was there that the satrap of Bactria, Bessus, had Darius murdered on Alexander's approach and took command himself in the unsuccessful opposition to the Macedonian conqueror. These events brought the Persian Empire to an end and marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period in the E Mediterranean. Darius III is probably the Darius the Persian mentioned in the Bible (Neh. 12.22).

Greco-Roman Period (332 B.C. - 395 A.D.)
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Macedonian Kings - Alexandria

Alexander the Great (332-323 BC)
The Egyptians, oppressed under the Persian rule, welcomed Alexander the Great with open arms when he entered the country in 332 B.C. While there he visited the Oracle of Amon, at Siwa, where he was declared "the son of Amon." Exactly how this happened is unclear. One story is that either upon entering or exiting the temple he was greeted by the priest as "my son." Alexander's army and followers were not in a strategic position to see the priest and thought the words came from the god himself. However it happened, from that point on Alexander was instated as a son of god, like the pharaohs of old. Alexander initiated the building of Alexandria, but never lived to see the city. He left Egypt in 331 B.C. and left Cleomenes of Naukratis in charge of the territory. This position was later claimed by Ptolemy. When Alexander died, Ptolemy's generals divided the kingdom.

Philip Arrhidaeus (323-316 BC)
was the king of Macedon from after June 11, 323 BC until his death. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedon by Philinna of Larissa, allegedly a Thessalian dancer, and a half-brother of Alexander the Great. Named Arrhidaeus at birth, he assumed the name Philip when he ascended to the throne.

In Plutarch's report, he became both physically and mentally disabled following a poisoning attempt by Philip II's wife, Queen Olympias, who wanted to eliminate a possible rival to her son Alexander. However, this may just be malicious gossip, and there is no evidence that Olympias really caused her stepson's condition. Alexander was very fond of him, and took him on his campaigns, both to protect his life and to ensure he would not be used as a pawn in a challenge for the throne. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Arrhidaeus was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army in Asia. However, he was a mere figurehead, and a pawn of the powerful generals, one after the other. His reign and his life did not last long.

Alexander IV (316-304 BC)
was the son of Alexander the Great and the princess Roxana, of Bactria.
Because Roxana was pregnant when her husband died and the gender of the baby was unknown, there was dissension in the Macedonian army regarding the order of succession. While the infantry supported the baby's uncle, Philip III (who was both feeble-minded and illegitimate), the chiliarch Perdiccas, commander of the elite Companion cavalry, persuaded them to wait in the hope that Roxana's unborn child would be male. The factions compromised, deciding that Perdiccas would rule the Empire as regent while Philip would reign, but only as a figurehead with no real power. If the child was male, then he would be king. Alexander IV was born in August, 323 BC.
After a severe regency, military failure in Egypt, and mutiny in the army, Perdiccas was assassinated by his senior officers in May or June 321 or 320 BC
He brought with him Roxana and the two kings to Macedon and gave up the pretence of ruling Alexander's Empire, leaving former provinces in Egypt and Asia in control of the satraps(governors of the provinces).

Ptolemaic Dynasty

Ptolemaic Dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV - Cleopatra
This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies. Scholars are not always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy VI through Ptolemy XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at which time, Egypt was overpowered by Rome.

Ptolemy I Soter I 323-285

Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the throne of Egypt fell to Ptolemy I, the son of Lagus. He was a veteran soldier and trusted commander who had served Alexander. He started the Ptolemaic Dynasty, which lasted about 300 years. He ran Egypt like a business, strictly for profit. One of the few surviving works of Ptolemy I Soter is the temple of Kom Abu Billo, which was dedicated to Hathor "Mistress of Mefket".

Ptolemy II Philadelphus 282-246

Ptolemy II Philadelphus, which means 'Brother/Sister-loving', was the second ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. His construction efforts included that of building the canal that linked the Nile to the Gulf of Suez. He was married to his full sister Arsinoe II. He also began a tradition of a four-yearly celebration to honor his father. It was intended to have a status equal to the Olympic games. According to the "Letter of Aristeas", Ptolemy II requested 70 Jewish scholars come from Jerusalem to translate the Pentateuch into a Greek version to be placed into the Great Library collection. He died on January 29, 246 BC.

Ptolemy III Euergeter I 246-222
was the third ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Arsinoe II and was married to Berenike, his sister. During the Third Syrian War of Ptolemy III, he discovered the main port in the Axumite kingdom, which was very important to the trade of ivory. He died in 222 BC.

Ptolemy IV Philopator 222-205
was the fourth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Philopator means 'Father-loving'. He married his sister Arsinoe and the two received a cult as the Father-loving Gods (Theoi Philopatores). He died in the summer of 204. After his death, two of his most powerful ministers had his wife, Arsinoe III, killed.

Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180

was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III. He became king after his father's death, when he was only five years old. After his father's death, his mother was eager to become the next regent. Ptolemy IV Philopator's two most powerful ministers, Sosibius and Agathocles had Arsinoe murdered. He was passed from the control of one adviser to another. The Rosetta Stone gives the trilingual inscription of the ceremonies attending the coronation of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. He was married to Cleopatra I. He died at the age of twenty-eight while putting down the last of the insurgents in the Delta. There were rumors that he had been poisoned. He left his wife, who was the daughter of Antiochus, as regent for their young son Ptolemy VI Philomentor.

Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164 & 163-145

was the sixth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ptolemy V Epiphanes, who died when Philometor was a very young boy. His mother died at approximately four years after Philometor took the throne and he was under the control of his guardians, Eulaeus and Lenaeus. His wife-sister was Cleopatra II and his younger brother was Ptolemy VII Euergetes II Physcon. In 164 BC, Philometor left Alexandria and went to Rome where he pretended to be working-class. He waited here until the authorities came to him. Physcon ruled in his absence and it was becoming intolerable. The Alexandrians soon were begging for Philometor to return to Alexandria. In May of 163, the two brothers agreed to split up the rule of Egypt. Physcon would rule the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor was ruler of Egypt. This lasted until Philometor's death in 145 BC.

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145

Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was the seventh ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the son of Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II. Upon Philometor's death, Cleopatra's son, who was about 16 years old and had been appointed co-ruler by his father earlier that year, became king under his mother's regency. Philopator's uncle Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) wanted to rule and a large number of supporters. He could not get Cleopatra out of the way, so he did the next best thing, he married her. Philopator was killed during the wedding feast.

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170-163 &145-116

was the eighth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He was the younger brother of Ptolemy VI Philometor and the uncle of Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator. He ruled Egypt when Philometor fled Alexandria for Rome. His rule proved to be intolerable and the Alexandrians were begging for Philometor to return. When he did, the two brothers split up rule; Physcon ruling the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor ruled Egypt. Upon Philometor's death, his son, Philopator, took over the throne with his mother as co-regent. Physcon married Philopator's mother, Cleopatra II, and had Philopator killed at the wedding feast. He returned to Memphis as Pharaoh and expulsed many of the Alexandrians who had sided against him. He also married Cleopatra II's daughter, Cleopatra III. He died on June 26, 116 BC and left his power to Cleopatra III and whichever of her sons she might prefer.

Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II 116-107 & 88-80
were co-regents during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra III was the niece of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) and was married to him while her mother was still his official wife. She bore Physcon two sons - Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) and Ptolemy X Alexander I as well as three daughters, Cleopatra IV, Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra Selene.

In Physcon's will he left the succession to Cleopatra and to whichever son she preferred. She hated Lathyros, but doted on the younger son Alexander. The Alexandrians wanted Lathyros to be co-regent. He was then governor of Cyprus. Lathyros was brought back to Alexandria to co-rule and Alexander was sent to Cyprus to replace Lathyros.

Lathyros was married to Cleopatra IV, his sister, but his mother repudiated the marriage and replaced her with Cleopatra Selene, who was Cleopatra IV's sister. Cleopatra IV went to Cyprus where she tried to raise an army and to marry Ptolemy Alexander. She failed to marry him and moved on to Syria where she used her army as a dowry and married Antiochus IX Cyzicenus who was son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea.

Cleopatra III finally succeeded in driving out Lathyros in 107 BC when she accused him of trying to murder her. He left behind his wife and his two sons. His brother returned from Cyprus and assumed the throne. Lathyros was in Cyprus during this time.

After the death of Alexander in a naval battle, Lathyros, who was now in his mid-fifties, was brought back to Alexandria to try to put back together the Ptolemaic empire. He died at the age of 62 and left no legitimate heir to the throne, both of his sons by Cleopatra Selene appear to have died at a young age. His daughter Cleopatra Berenice ruled alone for a while after his death.

Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I 107-88
Cleopatra III & Alexander I were co-rulers of the Ptolemaic Dynasty after Cleopatra had driven out her older son, Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), after accusing him of trying to kill her. Alexander had been the governor of Cyprus, but after Lathyros had been ousted, he returned to Alexandria to rule with his mother. Not long after he came to rule, his mother soon grew tired of him as well and forced him to flee from Alexandria. In 101, he returned under the pretense of a reconciliation with his mother. He came back and had her assassinated. Alexander was finally driven out of Egypt after selling off Alexander the Great's gold coffin to raise money. He willed his kingdom to Rome however, they could not claim their inheritance while he was still alive. It did allow him to gain favor with moneylenders in Rome. This did allow him to finance a fleet. He was killed in a naval battle off Cyprus.

Cleopatra Berenice 81-80

was the daughter of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II) and was married to Ptolemy X Alexander I. After the death of Alexander, she ruled for about one year alone. She was forced to marry her much younger stepson (or possible son). Nineteen days after the marriage took place, Ptolemy XI murdered his new bride.

Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
was the son of Ptolemy X Alexander. After the death of his uncle Ptolemy IX Soter II (Lathyros), his step-mother (or possibly mother) Cleopatra Berenice ruled for about one year alone. Ptolemy XI was required to marry his step-mother, who was much older than he. The marriage took place and nineteen days later, Ptolemy XI killed his new bride. He was then lynched by the Alexandrian mob, with whom his wife had been very popular

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos 80-58 & 55-51
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos was the illegitimate son of Lathyros (Ptolemy IX Soter II). His younger brother became governor of Cyprus and Ptolemy XII came to Alexandria to rule after the death of Ptolemy XI Alexander II. He was often referred to by his subjects as the Bastard or the Flute Player (Auletes). He referred to himself as 'Theos Philopator Philadelphos Neos Dionysos'. It is only in the history books that he is referred to as Ptolemy XII. He was married to his sister-wife, Cleopatra V Tryphaena and was the father of the famous Cleopatra VII, who grew up to be the last of the Ptolemies.

In 59 BC, he raised enough money to bribe Caesar, who was now consul for Rome. However, he was driven out of Alexandria in 58 BC. This occurred partly because of his tameness when Rome absorbed Cyprus. In his absence, he left as co-regents his wife-sister Cleopatra V Tryphaena and their eldest daughter, Berenice IV. Cleopatra Tryphaena died about a year later and Berenice IV ruled as sole regent. She was made to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes but after a short time, she had him strangled. Auletes returned to the throne in 55 BC and ruled until his death in 51 BC. On his death, he left his regency to his daughter Cleopatra VII.

Berenice IV 58-55
Berenice IV was the oldest daughter of Auletes (Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos) and ruled for three years during his exile. At the beginning of his exile, she co-ruled with her mother Cleopatra V Tryphaena until the mother's death about a year later. Berenice ruled as sole regent and was expected to marry. The one selected was Seleucus Kybiosaktes. After a few days, she had her husband strangled. The second man she chose was Archelaus. Her father finally paid out enough money and was brought back to Egypt. Archelaus' army was defeated and Pompey suggested that Auletes be returned to the throne. One of his first acts was to have his daughter, Berenice, executed.

Next posting will cover Cleopatra VII and also begin Alternative Histories Of Ancient Egypt
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PostMon Jan 10, 2011 8:15 pm » by Constabul


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Cleopatra VII Philopator was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh. After her death Egypt became a Roman province.

Cleopatra VII was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess.

Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name.

After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus.

Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus.

Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great. As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian.

She also adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron goddess was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess of wisdom. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean.

To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cleopatre and the 1963 film Cleopatra.

In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensees, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."

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he identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III. Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon.

Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited.

Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 12-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him.

In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of power.

The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe.

While Cleopatra was in exile, Pompey became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbor, from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC, Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked.

Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt at the time, though this act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head; Caesar was enraged. Although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, Julia (who died in childbirth with their son). Caesar seized the Egyptian capital and imposed himself as arbiter between the rival claims of Ptolemy and Cleopatra.

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Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself smuggled secretly into the palace to meet with Caesar. One legend claims she entered past Ptolemy's guards rolled up in a carpet. She became Caesar's mistress, and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, which means "little Caesar".

At this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a war lasting six months between the party of Ptolemy XIII and the Roman army of Caesar, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler.

Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar's stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead. During this relationship, it is also rumored that Cleopatra introduced Caesar to her astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria, who first proposed the idea of leap day and leap years.

Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in summer 46 BC, where the Egyptian Queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses. The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and it was a scandal, because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia Pisonis. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium.

The Roman orator Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign Queen. Cleopatra and her entourage were in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44 BC. She returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died - allegedly poisoned by his older sister - Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (= Father- and motherloving God).

Cleopatra in the Roman Civil War

In the following Roman civil war between the Caesarian party - led by Mark Antony and Octavian - and the party of the assassins of Caesar - led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus - Cleopatra sided with the Caesarian party because of her past. Brutus and Cassius left Italy and sailed to the East of the Roman Empire, where they conquered large areas and established their military basis. At the beginning of 43 BC Cleopatra formed an alliance with the leader of the Caesarian party in the East, Publius Cornelius Dolabella, who recognized Caesarion as her co-ruler.But soon Dolabella was encircled in Laodicea and committed suicide (July 43 BC).

Now Cassius wanted to invade Egypt to seize the treasures of that country and to punish the Queen for her refusal of Cassius' request to send him supplies and her support for Dolabella. Egypt seemed an easy booty because the land did not have strong land forces and there was famine and an epidemic. Cassius finally wanted to prevent that Cleopatra would bring a strong fleet as reinforcement for Antony and Octavian. But he could not execute the invasion of Egypt because at the end of 43 BC Brutus summoned him back to Smyrna.

Cassius tried to blockade Cleopatra's way to the Caesarians. For this purpose Lucius Statius Murcus moved with 60 ships and a legion of elite troops into position at Cape Matapan in the south of the Peloponnese. Nevertheless Cleopatra sailed with her fleet from Alexandria to the west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarian leaders but her ships were damaged by a violent storm and she became ill, forcing her to return to Egypt. Murcus learned of the misfortune of the Queen and saw parts of her wrecked ships at the coast of Greece. He then sailed with his ships into the Adriatic Sea.

Cleopatra and Mark Antony
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In 41 BC, Mark Antony, one of the triumvirs who ruled Rome in the power vacuum following Caesar's death, summoned Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus to answer questions about her loyalty. Cleopatra arrived in great state, and so charmed Antony that he chose to spend the winter of 41 BC-40 BC with her in Alexandria.

To safeguard herself and Caesarion, she had Antony order the death of her sister Arsinoe, who was living at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, which was under Roman control. The execution was carried out in 41 BC on the steps of the temple, and this violation of temple sanctuary scandalized Rome. Cleopatra had also executed her strategos of Cyprus, Serapion, who had supported Cassius against her intentions.

On December 25, 40 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to twins fathered by Antony, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II. Four years later, Antony visited Alexandria again en route to make war with the Parthians. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra, and from this point on Alexandria would be his home. He married Cleopatra according to the Egyptian rite (a letter quoted in Suetonius suggests this), although he was at the time married to Octavia Minor, sister of his fellow triumvir Octavian. He and Cleopatra had another child, Ptolemy Philadelphus.

At the Donations of Alexandria in late 34 BC, following Antony's conquest of Armenia, Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus; Alexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media, and Parthia; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia. Cleopatra was also given the title of "Queen of Kings" by Antonius.

Her enemies in Rome feared that Cleopatra "was planning a war of revenge that was to array all the East against Rome, establish herself as empress of the world at Rome, cast justice from Capitolium, and inaugurate a new universal kingdom." Caesarion was not only elevated having coregency with Cleopatra, but also proclaimed with many titles, including god, son of god and king of kings, and was depicted as Horus.

Egyptians thought Cleopatra to be
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a reincarnation of goddess Isis,
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as she called herself (Nea Isis).

Relations between Antony and Octavian, disintegrating for several years, finally broke down in 33 BC, and Octavian convinced the Senate to levy war against Egypt. In 31 BC Antony's forces faced the Romans in a naval action off the coast of Actium. Cleopatra was present with a fleet of her own. Popular legend states that when she saw that Antony's poorly equipped and manned ships were losing to the Romans' superior vessels, she took flight and that Antony abandoned the battle to follow her, but no contemporary evidence states this was the case. Following the Battle of Actium, Octavian invaded Egypt. As he approached Alexandria, Antony's armies deserted to Octavian on August 1, 30 BC.

There are a number of unverifiable stories about Cleopatra, of which one of the best known is that, at one of the lavish dinners she shared with Antony, she playfully bet him that she could spend ten million sesterces on a dinner. He accepted the bet. The next night, she had a conventional, unspectacular meal served; he was ridiculing this, when she ordered the second course - only a cup of strong vinegar. She then removed one of her priceless pearl earrings, dropped it into the vinegar, allowed it to dissolve, and drank the mixture. The earliest report of this story comes from Pliny the Elder and dates to about 100 years after the banquet described would have happened. The calcium carbonate in pearls does dissolve in vinegar, but slowly unless the pearl is first crushed.

he ancient sources, particularly the Roman ones, are in general agreement that Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to bite her. The oldest source is Strabo, who was alive at the time of the event, and might even have been in Alexandria. He says that there are two stories: that she applied a toxic ointment, or that she was bitten by an asp. Several Roman poets, writing within ten years of the event, all mention bites by two asps, as does Florus, a historian, some 150 years later. Velleius, sixty years after the event, also refers to an asp. Other authors have questioned these historical accounts, stating that it is possible that Augustus had her killed.

Plutarch, writing about 130 years after the event, reports that Octavian succeeded in capturing Cleopatra in her Mausoleum after the death of Antony. He ordered his freedman Epaphroditus to guard her to prevent her from committing suicide because he allegedly wanted to present her in his triumph. But Cleopatra was able to deceive Epaphroditus and kill herself nevertheless.

Plutarch states that she was found dead, her handmaiden, Iras dying at her feet, and another handmaiden, Charmion, adjusting her crown before she herself falls. He then goes on to state that an asp was concealed in a basket of figs that was brought to her by a rustic, and, finding it after eating a few figs, she held out her arm for it to bite. Other stories state that it was hidden in a vase, and that she poked it with a spindle until it got angry enough to bite her on the arm. Finally, he eventually writes, in Octavian's triumphal march back in Rome, an effigy of Cleopatra that has an asp clinging to it is part of the parade.

Suetonius, writing about the same time as Plutarch, also says Cleopatra died from an asp bite.

Shakespeare gave us the final part of the image that has come down to us, Cleopatra clutching the snake to her breast. Before him, it was generally agreed that she was bitten on the arm.

Plutarch tells us of the death of Antony. When his armies desert him and join with Octavian, he cries out that Cleopatra has betrayed him. She, fearing his wrath, locks herself in her monument with only her two handmaidens and sends messengers to Antony that she is dead. Believing them, Antony stabs himself in the stomach with his sword, and lies on his couch to die. Instead, the blood flow stops, and he begs any and all to finish him off.

Another messenger comes from Cleopatra with instructions to bear him to her, and he, rejoicing that Cleopatra is still alive, consents. She won't open the door, but tosses ropes out of a window. After Antony is securely trussed up, she and her handmaidens haul him up into the monument. This nearly finishes him off. After dragging him in through the window, they lay him on a couch. Cleopatra tears off her clothes and covers him with them. She raves and cries, beats her breasts and engages in self-mutilation. Antony tells her to calm down, asks for a glass of wine, and dies upon finishing it.

The site of their Mausoleum is uncertain, though it is thought by the Egyptian Antiquities Service, to be in or near the temple of Taposiris Magna south west of Alexandria.

Cleopatra's son by Caesar, Caesarion, was proclaimed pharaoh by the Egyptians, after Alexandria fell to Octavian. Caesarion was captured and killed, his fate reportedly sealed when one of Octavian's advisers paraphrased Homer: "It is bad to have too many Caesars." This ended not just the Hellenistic line of Egyptian pharaohs, but the line of all Egyptian pharaohs. The three children of Cleopatra and Antony were spared and taken back to Rome where they were taken care of by Antony's wife, Octavia Minor. The daughter, Cleopatra Selene, was married by arrangements by Octavian to Juba II of Mauretania.

ok, over all this concludes my contemporary telling of Egyptian History.

Because i have eluded to it in a few other post, i in my next post will being alternative history, starting with jesus' connection to this all.
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PostMon Jan 10, 2011 9:01 pm » by Thebluecanary


Holy shit Bul, how have I missed this before? What a huge amount of work, and what neat information to sit and read on a lovely snow day!

Thanks. Looking forward to what comes next.
Remember, in a real conspiracy, all players are pawns regardless of their rank.
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PostMon Jan 10, 2011 9:04 pm » by Constabul


thanks girly, :mrgreen:
indeed is purdy outside, and cold.
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PostMon Jan 10, 2011 11:00 pm » by Constabul


This one is fairly simple to put out there, will get it out the way as to focus on other things.

I came across this theory a while back, and after a bit of thought seemed feesable.
in the end, all any of are doing is speculating. So before you nay say, with that is not the right time period, or whatever. just consider the possibility.

The jesus we are lead to believe in, is in reality the son of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, both of whom, were self proclaimed Gods on earth, Hence the reference of, the son of god, meaning, the son of Caesar.

History is fairly vague as to the fate of Caesarion, other then he was killed.
Where as some stories claim he was smuggled out of Egypt, and sent Eastward. To India.
Where he remained and learned of Buddhism.

Several authors have claimed to have found proof of the existence of manuscripts in India and Tibet that support the belief that Christ was in India during this time in his life. Others cite legends in a number of places in the region that Jesus passed that way in ancient times.

Gruber and Kersten (1995) claim that Buddhism had a substantial influence on the life and teachings of Jesus. They claim that Jesus was influenced by the teachings and practices of Therapeutae, described by the authors as teachers of the Buddhist Theravada school then living in Judaea. They assert that Jesus lived the life of a Buddhist and taught Buddhist ideals to his disciples; their work follows in the footsteps of the Oxford New Testament scholar' Barnett Hillman Streeter, who established as early as the 1930s that the moral teaching of the Buddha has four remarkable resemblances to the Sermon on the Mount.

It is also believed that mary, james, and thomas were the children of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony,
And upon return from the east, Jesus reconnected with his sibling, who could verify his identity. One dissident of Rome, with a claim to the throne of Rome.
Being of Hyksos descendants, < hebrew >, It is whom he attempted to back convince to back his rights to the throne.
What better way to marginalize the claim to a throne, then to make him out to be a messiah of the Hebrews, which were i dime a dozen, as many prophecies were already known.
it would not only take away the attention that he was drawing by claiming to be the son of god. Caesar. By claiming to be the son of ancient Semitic cult worship. which is the origin of the Torah. See Levantine deities, Mesopotamian deities, and Egyptian deities to see the main players of the Torah.
In all honesty, it is only a speculation, one that seems plausible, Timelines can be tampered with and adjusted, it is not something infallible. this video explains it much better then i ever could. so here it is for your consumption. hopefully you will give it time, and watch, and consider the possibility.

Here are the "evidences" put into better perspective.


Upload to Disclose.tv


[youtube]1gPMefaG6-c&feature=related[/youtube]


Upload to Disclose.tv


Taken from the Ring of Power.

ok Next post will be backing up in time, and presenting Alternative history, i will be posting video and literature material so to gather the full scope of what i imply will require a bit of sit down time watching a few video / documentaries.
hope you enjoy
Bul


Edit to add another tidbit.

A team of scientists led by renowned French marine archaeologist Franck Goddio recently announced that they have found a bowl, dating to between the late 2nd century B.C. and the early 1st century A.D., that is engraved with what they believe could be the world’s first known reference to Christ.

If the word “Christ” refers to the Biblical Jesus Christ, as is speculated, then the discovery may provide evidence that Christianity and paganism at times intertwined in the ancient world.

The full engraving on the bowl reads, “DIA CHRSTOU O GOISTAIS,” which has been interpreted by the excavation team to mean either, “by Christ the magician” or, “the magician by Christ.”

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“It could very well be a reference to Jesus Christ, in that he was once the primary exponent of white magic,” Goddio, co-founder of the Oxford Center of Maritime Archaeology, said.

He and his colleagues found the object during an excavation of the underwater ruins of Alexandria’s ancient great harbor. The Egyptian site also includes the now submerged island of Antirhodos, where Cleopatra’s palace may have been located.

Both Goddio and Egyptologist David Fabre, a member of the European Institute of Submarine Archaeology, think a “magus” could have practiced fortune telling rituals using the bowl. The Book of Matthew refers to “wisemen,” or Magi, believed to have been prevalent in the ancient world.

According to Fabre, the bowl is also very similar to one depicted in two early Egyptian earthenware statuettes that are thought to show a soothsaying ritual.

“It has been known in Mesopotamia probably since the 3rd millennium B.C.,” Fabre said. “The soothsayer interprets the forms taken by the oil poured into a cup of water in an interpretation guided by manuals.”

He added that the individual, or “medium,” then goes into a hallucinatory trance when studying the oil in the cup.

“They therefore see the divinities, or supernatural beings appear that they call to answer their questions with regard to the future,” he said.

The magus might then have used the engraving on the bowl to legitimize his supernatural powers by invoking the name of Christ, the scientists theorize.

Goddio said, “It is very probable that in Alexandria they were aware of the existence of Jesus” and of his associated legendary miracles, such as transforming water into wine, multiplying loaves of bread, conducting miraculous health cures, and the story of the resurrection itself.

While not discounting the Jesus Christ interpretation, other researchers have offered different possible interpretations for the engraving, which was made on the thin-walled ceramic bowl after it was fired, since slip was removed during the process.

Bert Smith, a professor of classical archaeology and art at Oxford University, suggests the engraving might be a dedication, or present, made by a certain “Chrestos” belonging to a possible religious association called Ogoistais.

Klaus Hallof, director of the Institute of Greek inscriptions at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy, added that if Smith’s interpretation proves valid, the word “Ogoistais” could then be connected to known religious groups that worshipped early Greek and Egyptian gods and goddesses, such as Hermes, Athena and Isis.

Hallof additionally pointed out that historians working at around, or just after, the time of the bowl, such as Strabon and Pausanias, refer to the god “Osogo” or “Ogoa,” so a variation of this might be what’s on the bowl. It is even possible that the bowl refers to both Jesus Christ and Osogo.

Fabre concluded, “It should be remembered that in Alexandria, paganism, Judaism and Christianity never evolved in isolation. All of these forms of religion (evolved) magical practices that seduced both the humble members of the population and the most well-off classes.”

“It was in Alexandria where new religious constructions were made to propose solutions to the problem of man, of God’s world,” he added. “Cults of Isis, mysteries of Mithra, and early Christianity bear witness to this.”
source for the last article http://ethosinterrupted.wordpress.com/2 ... -magician/
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PostMon Jan 10, 2011 11:08 pm » by Edgarrothstein


Constabul, check your PM...
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PostMon Jan 10, 2011 11:15 pm » by Constabul


edgarrothstein wrote:Constabul, check your PM...

:cheers:
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PostTue Jan 11, 2011 12:52 am » by Svaha


Constabul, many thanks for your great effort. :flop:
Follow your bliss(ters) - Joseph Campbell

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PostTue Jan 11, 2011 1:57 am » by Newdawnrising


Holy crap dude :shock: , i'm not even half way done and my brain is on fire, i love the burn. Well done, and thanks tons for the work you have done so far. Now if you don't mind i am going to go settle into a differant perspective and allow what i have read to sink in. I'll be back. :flop: :banana:
I know the voices in my head aren't real, but man, sometimes they have some really good ideas.

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PostTue Jan 11, 2011 11:51 pm » by Constabul


Egyptian princess named Scota
In 1955, archaeologist Dr. Sean O’Riordan of Trinity College, Dublin, made an interesting discovery during an excavation of the Mound of Hostages at Tara, site of ancient kingship of Ireland. Bronze Age skeletal remains were found of what has been argued to be a young prince, still wearing a rare necklace of faience beads, made from a paste of minerals and plant extracts that had been fired.

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The skeleton was carbon dated to around 1350 BC. In 1956, J. F. Stone and L. C. Thomas reported that the faience beads were Egyptian: “In fact, when they were compared with Egyptian faience beads, they were found to be not only of identical manufacture but also of matching design.

The famous boy-king Tutankhamun was entombed around the same time as the Tara skeleton and the priceless golden collar around his mummy’s neck was inlayed with matching conical, blue-green faience beads”. An almost identical necklace was found in a Bronze Age burial mound at north Molton, Devon.


Lorraine Evans in her compelling book, Kingdom of the Ark, reveals archaeological connections between Egypt and Ireland. Evans argues that the connections between the two distant lands were plausible and there is archaeological evidence to support the theory. In 1937 in North Ferriby, Yorkshire, the remains of an ancient boat were discovered. While thought to be a Viking longship at first, continued excavation produced additional ships, wrecked in a storm. Further investigation showed that the boats were much older than Viking ships and were of a type found in the Mediterranean. It was concluded that these boats originated from 2000 years before the Viking age and were radiocarbon dated to around 1400 to 1350 BC. Evans then makes connections to argue that these boats could originate from Egypt, as the timeframe fits the dating of the faience beads. While investigating the origins of the people of Scotland in the Bower manuscript, the Scotichronicon, she discovers the story of Scota, the Egyptian princess and daughter of a pharaoh who fled from Egypt with her husband Gaythelos with a large following of people who arrive in a fleet of ships. They settled in Scotland for a while amongst the natives, until they were forced to leave and landed in Ireland, where they formed the Scotti, and their kings became the high kings of Ireland. In later centuries, they returned to Scotland, defeating the Picts, and giving Scotland its name.

Evans then posits the questions: Was the Tara necklace a gift from the Egyptians to a local chieftain after their arrival? Or was the Tara prince actually Egyptian himself? According to Bower’s manuscript, Scota’s descendants were the high kings of Ireland. In her quest to discover the true identity of ‘Scota,’ as it was not an Egyptian name, she finds within Bower’s manuscript that Scota’s father is actually named as being Achencres, a Greek version of an Egyptian name. In the work of Manetho, an Egyptian priest, Evans discovers the translation of the name—the pharaoh Achencres was none other than Akhenaten, who reigned in the correct timeframe of 1350 BC. Evans believes that Scota was Meritaten, eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. The third eldest daughter, Ankhesenpaaten, married her half-brother, King Tutankhamun, son of Akhenaten and his secondary wife, Kiya. The controversial religious shift to the god Aten caused conflict with the Amun priesthood, who reasserted their authority after Akhenaten’s reign ended and he disappeared from history. This conflict and the rumored deaths by plague would have been sufficient motivation for the pharaoh’s eldest daughter to accept a foreign prince in marriage, rather than being Tut’s wife as would have been normal protocol, and to flee from the conflicted country.

What happens to Scota and her people? For this, we must return again to the myths of the people inhabiting Ireland at the time, the Tuatha de Danaan, the magical children of the Goddess Danu: “It was they who originally established the site of Tara, in the Boyne river valley, as the ritual inauguration and burial place of the ancient kings of Ireland. They were generally regarded as the gods and goddesses of the Celtic tribes, but it is believed that their true origins date far back into prehistory”. Could the de Danaan even perhaps have been the descendants of the lost land of Atlantis, migrants to Ireland after its final destruction, estimated by Edgar Cayce to have been around 10,000 BC? Cayce states in various psychic readings that the Atlanteans migrated to parts of the Yucatan and later into North America to merge with the existing native Mound Builders in the Ohio region. As Tara is also a sacred mound site, could there be a connection? It is an interesting speculation, and if the ‘Sons of Mil’ were indeed Egyptians, there is another connection to mound-building cultures, as sacred burial mounds were the origins for the pyramid structures that followed in the evolution of pyramid building in Egypt. Could there have been a common tie to these two cultures, united once more upon the Hill of Tara? Perhaps that, too, could explain part of the ancient symbolic meaning of the site, a place of sacred union of two cultures with a thread of common identity.

In the Annals of the Four Masters, dating to 1632-36, Scota’s husband is named Eremon, and it is Eremon and Eber who divide the land of Ireland between them, with Eremon in the north and Eber in the south. What is interesting to me about this version is the similarity between the division of Ireland and the division of Egypt itself. Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt, unified by a central connecting city, Memphis. If we consider the existing myths of Ireland’s legends, it, too, was divided to have a central site of unity, known as Mide, the omphalos of Ireland. Within Mide is where the Hill of Tara is situated, as a site of the High Kingship, representing the unity of the land and all of its people.

Sadly, it is in the battle for Ireland at Slieve Mish, as recorded in the Lebor Gabala, that Scota meets a tragic end and is killed. After her death in this battle, the war continued on at Tailtinn against the three kings of the Tuatha de Danaan, the husbands of the Goddesses Banba, Fodla, and Eriu: MacCuill, MacCeacht, and MacGreine. The sons of Mil, after prolonged battle, conquered the de Danaans and took the seat of Tara. According to the Bower manuscript, Scota was buried “between Sliab Mis and the sea,” and her grave, Fert Scota, is found in a glen located in Glenscota.

The exact location of Scota’s resting place remains a mystery, much like the particulars of her past, which are slowing being unveiled. As with many myths, a real person lent her persona and identity to the landscape of the land she became a part of, giving Scotland her name, giving the Celts an additional layer to their unique heritage that is unsung and still somewhat new in theory, as the truths of history do their slow unraveling of their yarns.

I know from my own intuitive experiences that more of the story of Scota and the Egyptian connection to the Celts will indeed by revealed. On the Summer Solstice of 2006, I had this dream about Tara and its importance as a sacred site to the healing of our world, of finding unity amongst our current state of chaos:

“While excavating Tara, we are looking for evidence of kingship, an Egyptian connection. I am shown that there are two connections—a tree, as in the Tree of Life. Something else spirals with the tree to connect and to make a third way, a way between the worlds. I am told that as they dig that they will find things that may be in England, but that Ireland and the Hill of Tara will be riddled with pearls. Pearls of the sea show kingship, sovereignty, the true center of kingship, a center that rules over all. I am shown two snake-like DNA strands, winding together like vines, and these two twisted strands are connected to Tara. Pearls are the birthstone of the month of June, and the rose is also the flower of that month. The Rose of Tralee comes to mind and its connections to their beauty queen pageant—queenship, the rose. Tara as the site of Queenship, the beautiful center of the rose. I am told more about the beautiful pearls all over Tara, the pearls of the crown, of finding this lost race of kingship once more, which is NOT located in England, I am told. The Goddess stands on Tara, in the center, looking out over Ireland, Scotland, and England, showing me a trinity. She stands on Tara and under it, showing the way between of the above and below, the way between the trinity, with Her in the center, and that She, plus the Land, plus the People, equal the Sacred Three. She tells me that She is the Mother of the boy in my visions, the sacred son who will also be my son one day, and where to find him to bring him home. The Irish were a race of persecution, persecuted by the English, so I am told that history’s conquerors cannot be our future history’s leaders. Because of the past, no people will follow them. But this is not true of the Irish, for the true leaders of the People unite the three, She says, the People, Her, the Land. She leaves me with the suggestion that the Irish are a mix of three races, not just one of European descent, and this is also important to lead our way into our future to understand our Oneness and our equality, our harmony with the Land, with Her.”

After the dream ended, I thought about the meaning of the Celts, of the ideal of striving for unity, of Brehon laws, of equality. I realized that my own name is significant in this symbolism—my last name was originally Adam before my great-grandfather changed it, which means the red earth, the first people, all five races in one. And then I realized as well the connection of Tara. Backwards, Ta-ra becomes Ra-Ta, the priest from an Egyptian past-life of Edgar Cayce who assisted in building the pyramids. Then I took it a step further to remember that the names of the Egyptian creator god Ptah and of course the sun god Ra combined become Ptah-Ra. Was the name of Tara Herself, derived somehow from these Egyptian origins? The making of the sun king or Ra was derived from the power of Tea, the Goddess, in Her union with him. Of course, within Egyptian culture, it was Isis who held the sacred name of Ra, so it was she who held the secret power to create over all of the gods and goddesses of Egypt. And what of the sacred boy from my own visions, a boy of dark skin and dark hair? In one vision, he was walking upon a sacred mound, as if it were Brigid’s Mound in Glastonbury, but it was definitely Celtic. Was he the lost prince in the Mound of Hostages whom Evans identifies as Egyptian, capturing my attention many years ago to lead me upon this journey, of connecting the cultures of two very variant lands? Is he indeed the soul of my son yet to be born, a connection tied together in totality at last for myself in my own personal journey as well? The questions about Tara and her secrets continue, as my own quest to uncover more answers begins.

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The Mystery Of The Cocaine Mummies


In the beginning of the nineties, the Egyptian Museum in Munich initiated a research project to find out whether the ancient Egyptians had consumed the Lotus flower because of its psychedelic properties, a theory triggered by the many decorative Lotus flowers in many temples. Dr Svetla Balabanova, a renowned toxicologist of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Ulm (Germany), examined the nine mummies on request of the museum and found that, instead of Lotus flower remains, an abundance of nicotine and cocaine was present Such drugs come from the tobacco and coca plants respectively, plants that existed only in the Americas and were unknown before Columbus discovered America. To be sure, she requested that 3 other laboratories repeated the test and all came up with the same results. Even though these techniques are used in criminal lawsuits the world over and are 100% accurate, the scientific world, headed by the Oxford University, reacted furiously and denied the outcomes since it implicates that there was contact between Egypt and the Americas before Columbus, which is regarded as absolutely impossible.

Nicotine had previously been discovered, however, in mummified remains in 1976, when the mummy of Pharaoh Ramses II was brought to the Museum of Mankind in Paris. But this was 'forgotten' as it is seen as unfavorable by Egyptologists.

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Ancient Egypt Link with Australia

After 5,000 years Australia's Amazing Hieroglyphs still struggle for recognition!

Egyptian hieroglyphs found in New South Wales:

The hieroglyphs tell the tale of early Egyptian explorers, injured and stranded, in ancient Australia. The discovery centres around a most unusual set of rock carvings found in the National Park forest of the Hunter Valley, 100 km north of Sydney.

The enigmatic carvings have been part of the local folklore of the area for nearly a century with reports of people who sighted them as far back as the early 1900's.

The site was secretly visited by families "in the know" in the 1950's and fell back into local mythology for a couple of decades until it was accidentally rediscovered by a man looking for his lost dog.

The carvings are in a rock cleft, a large block of split sandstone on a cliff-face that has created a small chasm or "chamber" of two flat stone walls facing each other that widens out from two to four metres and is covered in by a huge flat rock as a "roof" at the narrow end.

The cleft is most cave-like and only accessible by a small rock chute from above or below, well disguised from the average bush-walker.

When you first come up the rock chute and climb into the stone hallway you are immediately confronted by a number of worn carvings that are obviously ancient Egyptian symbols. These are certainly not your average Aboriginal animal carvings, but something clearly alien in the Australian bush setting.

There are at least 250 hieroglyphs.

At the end of the chamber, protected by the remaining section of stone roof, is a remarkable third-life sized carving of the ancient Egyptian god "Anubis", the Judge of the Dead.

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The hieroglyphs were extremely ancient, in the archaic style of the early dynasties.

This archaic style is very little known and untranslatable by most Egyptologists who are all trained to read Middle Egyptian upward.

The classic Egyptian dictionaries only handle Middle Egyptian, and there are few people in the world who can read and translate the early formative style.

Because the old style contains early forms of glyphs that correlate with archaic Phoenician and Sumerian sources one can see how the university researchers who saw them could so easily have thought them to be bizarre and ill-conceived forgeries.

The ageing Egyptologist Ray Johnson, who had translated extremely ancient texts for the Museum of Antiquities in Cairo eventually was successful in documenting and translating the two facing walls of Egyptian characters - which stemmed from the Third Dynasty.

The rock walls chronicle a tragic saga of ancient explorers shipwrecked in a strange and hostile land, and the untimely death of their royal leader, "Lord Djes-eb".

A group of three cartouches (framed clusters of glyphs) record the name of "RA-JEDEF" as reigning King of the Upper and Lower Nile, and son of 'Khufu' who, in turn, is son of the King 'Sneferu'.

This dates the expedition just after the reign of King Khufu - known in the Greek as "Cheops" alleged builder of the Great Pyramid.

Lord Djes-eb may have actually been one of the sons of the Pharaoh Ra Djedef, who reigned after Khufu.

Visual observation of the site makes it obvious that the worn carvings exposed to the coastal weather would have to be several centuries to a thousand years old at least.

When first found the site was completely overgrown with thick vegetation and filled in with smashed rock and a much higher soil line. A number of excavation attempts by interested parties have not turned up any artefacts or bodies but sophisticated and expensive laser scanning techniques have not been applied.

There is significant evidence that the ancients were well aware of the Great South land. There were both Sumerian and Mayan traditions of a "lost motherland" in the Pacific.

Australia appears under the name of "Antoecie" on the famous spherical world map of Crates of Mallos, even appearing on the Greek map of Eratosthenese in 239 BC. It seems fairly certain that the maritime civilizations of antiquity were quite capable of extensive ocean voyages. Particularly the early Egyptians, as evidenced by Giza's remarkable 'Tomb of the Boat'.

According to Cairo Times, in 1982, archaeologists working at Fayum, near the Siwa Oasis uncovered fossils of kangaroos and other Australian marsupials. There's also the unexplained set of golded boomerangs discovered by Prof. Carter in the tomb of Tutankhamen in 1922.

The Gympie Ape
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The statue was unearthed in 1966 on Mr Dal K. Berrys Wolvi Rd property. The ape is made of conglomerate iron stone and shows a squatting ape figure. It is believed to represent the Egyptian God Thoth in ape form.

A smaller stone idol unearthed near the Gympie Pyramid is also believed to represent the Egyptian God Thoth in ape form clutching the Tau or the Cross of Life. This statuette is badly weathered with age. Thoth was the god of writing & wisdom, depicted as an ape by the Egyptians untill about 1000 BC when he became an Ibis-headed human bodied diety who recorded the judgement of the souls of Amenti, the after world. Thoth's symbol was the papyrus flower.

An ancient Terraced Hill at least 6000 years old has been found on the outskirts of Gympie off Tin Can Bay Road. The Pyramidal structure is 100 foot high and consists of a series of terraces up to 4 feet tall and eight feet across constructed of small and larger lumps of stone. It was recorded by the first white man into the area in the 1850's.

A very small statuette of a squatting ape was found by Widgee Shire workman Mr Doug George from near Traveston crossing. Mr George picked up the rock while working near the bridge. This is also believed to be Thoth in ape form.

Unearthed at Noosaville on the Sunshine Caost, was an ancient Egyptian Jade Ankh or 'Cross of Life'

Toowoomba: A group of seventeen granite stones were found with Phoenician inscriptions. One had been translated to read "Guard the shrine of Yahweh's message" and "Gods of Gods". Another inscription reads, "This is a place of worship or Ra" and "Assemble here to worship the sun." Ra was the Egyptian sun god.

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Rex Gilroy in 1978 identified ancient Masonic Egyptian symbols among aboriginal cave art several miles from the 1910 Ptolomy IV coin discovery site.

An Egyptian sundisc was discovered in 1950 carved into a cliff. The carving featured the outline of a chariot, showing one of its wheels.

Near Bowen carvings were found on rocks which looked like Egyptian heiroglyphs.

A scarab beetle carved from onyx was dug up near the Neapean River outside Penrith (NSW). Also at Penrith a 50 foot stepped pyramid exists. West of the Blue Mountains (NSW) a similar 'stepped pyramid' to the Gympie example exists. Although constructed of huge granite blocks stands about 100 feet tall.

In the central NSW late last century a cult was recorded among the aboriginals who worshipped a sky being called Biame. The soul judging functions of Biame were parallel to those Thoth who in Egyptian mythology conducted the spirits to Osiris, The god of the Dead, for judgement.

Beside the Hawkesbury River, very old aboriginal rock art depicts strange visitors to the continent, including people looking like Egyptians.

Aboriginal tribes of the NW Kimberley's still worship a mother-goddess identical to that once worshipped by Gympie district tribes and which resembles that of ancient middle east peoples. Kimberley tribes also include some groups bearing apparent middle east racial features and speak many ancient Egyptian words in their language.

In 1931 in the N.W. Kimberley's, Prof. A. P. Elkin, Professor of Anthropology at Sydney University came upon a tribe of Aborigines who had not met a white man before. The professor was astounded when tribal elders greeted him with Ancient Secret masonic hand signs. He was struck by the startling sematic features present in the natives. He discovered the Aborigines worshipped the sun. They also had an earth mother and Rainbow Serpent Cult. Later he discovered many of the words spoken were of Egyptian origin. This is the area of the famous Wandjina Cave Art. According to legend the Wanjina came from across the Indian Ocean in great vessels.

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The Tjuringa sacred stones of the Kimberley region include a sun symbol identical to that of the Aten. The solar deity worshipped in Egypt around 1000 BC. In Atonist art, the Sun was depicted as having little hands that reached out to touch mankind. There was an Egyptian God named Aton connected to Akhenaten.

Arnhem land and Torres Strait peoples mummified their dead. On Darnley Island in Torres Strait, natives mummified their dead by removing their stomach contents. Then extracted the brains by making an incision through the nostrils with a bone instrument. After inserting artificial eyes of pearl shell, they embalmed the corpse and rowed it 2 miles westward out to sea in a canoe shaped like the 'Boat of Ra' of the Egyptians, for internment on an island of the dead. As if to imitate the Egyptians who ferried their dead across the Nile to the West bank tombs.

The natives of Arnhem Land also believed the soul was conducted to the after life in a canoe rowed by Willuwait the boatman of the dead. If the deceased had led a good life he was allowed to enter Purelko, the afterworld. If not, he was eaten by a crocodile. This belief is identical to the teachings of the Osirian religion of Egypt where Thoth conducted the spirits of the dead into the presence of Osiris for judgement. Here if the souls sins were outweighed by a feather, the body was devoured by the crocodile God Ba.

In 1875 the Shevert expedition retrieved a mummified corpse and an example of the canoe used in funerary rites from Darnley Island. World renowned medical scientist Sir Raphael Cilento who examined the corpse stated the incisions and method of embalming to be the same as those employed in Egypt during the 21st to 23rd dynasties over 2900 years ago.

On New Hanover Island, off the tip of New Ireland in 1964, an administration medical officer, Mr. Ray Sheridan discovered what appears to be the remains of an ancient sun-worshippers temple of Egyptian style. Among the monolithic stone blocks there was an idol, facing the rising sun with features half human, half bird it stood 6 feet tall and weighed four tons. Near there Ray Sheridan found the carving of a wheel complete with hub. The ruins reminded him of ancient Sun-worship temples he had seen in Egypt during WWII.

In 1931 Australian Anthropologist, Sir Grafton Elliot-Smith examined mummified remains in a New Zealand cave. He identified the skull as being that of an ancient Egyptian at least 2000 years old. A gold scarab was also dug up in the district on another occasion. His papers seen to have mysteriously disappeared from The Australian Academy of Science Library in Canberra.

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Ancient Egyptian Artifacts Found in Grand Canyon



On April 5th, 1909, there appeared a front page story in the Arizona Gazette. It told of an archeological expedition in the heart of the Grand Canyon funded by the Smithsonian Institute. (a full transcription of the article can be found at: http://www.keelynet.com/unclass/canyon.txt) It is a rich story of finding a labyrinth of man-made tunnel systems high above the Colorado River, a virtual citadel filled with ancient artifacts, hieroglyphs, armor, statues of deities and even mummies. Anyone contacting the Smithsonian Institute will receive a polite "no records found" reply to an inquiry about their supposed role in the Grand Canyon.

The following narration shows how I came to be convinced of an exact location in the Grand Canyon that is a key to this story (regardless of whether the newspaper article is a hoax or not), and contains mathematical proof. This story also reveals an ancient cartographic code that led me to this conclusion, and the meaningful coincidences that unfolded as I pursued this mystery. The location is known as "Isis Temple" and is paramount in a well kept secret that is just now being uncovered in ways far richer and more important than material wealth. The cherished gem of Arizona, the Grand Canyon, one of the seven natural wonders of the world, contains a legacy and a link to a history known only by a few; suppressed not only by greed and politics, but by a forgotten code hidden right beneath our very feet. It is all beginning to come to light now.

I first came across the information about the newspaper article in 1998 via the www. To satisfy my curiosity, I went to the Phoenix Public Library, found the article on microfilm and made a few photo copies of it. I didn't give it too much thought at the time, other than mentioning it from time to time to people who attend free speaking engagements and classes I offer. As a 30 year independent researcher in the field of sacred geometry, (sometimes known also as hyper-dimensional geometry, living geometry, and alchemical geometry) and other related subjects, I found the topic relating to Egypt synchronistic, since a lot of my studies revolved around the ancient schools of thought and geometry of sacred sites and temples of Egypt. Like others, I thought it was rather odd, if indeed the article was not a hoax, that evidence of ancient Egyptians would be found in Arizona, of all places!..... After all, the Egyptians did not explore the Americas, everyone knew that, and it was not taught in any school. We thought this also of the ancient Romans, until ancient Roman headgear, armor, swords, coins and other artifacts were found just North of Tucson, not far from Interstate 10 !

Now that the subject has come up about suppressed information, if indeed that is what it is, there is a well researched book of 914 pages by Michael Cremo and Richard Thompson titled Forbidden Archeology, which can open anyone's' third eye to a history of mankind that has never been taught, except in those 'mystery schools' so well cloaked in myth, secrecy and ridicule. Some good information can be found by searching the archives of http://www.dailygrail.com and also http://www.mcremo.com.

Then in October of 2000 I came upon a another web site that had lots of information and photos of Egyptian hieroglyphs found a hundred years ago in Australia ! The hieroglyphs were on the stone wall next to a cave entrance, and told of ancient Egyptian explorers getting lost and stranded, left to die in Australia. (see: http://www.ozemail.com.au/~classblu/egypt/egypt.htm)

At around the same time I happened to read in a book titled Ancient Secret of The Flower of Life, Vol. II, page 302, the story of two backpackers who ventured into the Grand Canyon. What they claimed to have found first, while on their way to a location known as Isis Temple, (see photo at: http://www.hitthetrail.com/mikespages/isis.htm) was a rather large pyramid made from the native rock. Once at Isis Temple, at an elevation of about 800 feet, they claimed to have seen several cave entrances, just as reported in the newspaper article. They also noticed that they all seemed to be sealed shut or destroyed, as if to keep everyone out. (the question here arises, why deliberate sealing of caves in such a remote, hard to access, area?) Because they were also expert rock climbers, they climbed the 800 feet to the most promising looking cave entrance. Upon reaching the entrance they discovered that it too had been sealed off several feet in with native rock. They did notice, however, that the entrance seemed to be man made and that there was a 6 foot circular pattern clearly hewn into the ceiling. This story was told to the author of the book, and from the context of the material presented in the book and from the nature of the author's character, of whom I am familiar, I could not for the life of me imagine why such a story would be fabricated and told to him unless it were absolutely true.

And yet, Isis Temple (which can be seen from the South Rim visitors areas) is at least 40 miles from the location given in the newspaper article. So, if the newspaper article was not a hoax, and Isis Temple was the real location, the other location could have been misinformation to keep people away. Then again, if the newspaper article was a hoax, what then had the two backpackers stumbled upon ? And why were extremely remote cave entrances sealed ?

A question arises here also: why are there so many geographical locations in the Grand Canyon named after Egyptian and Hindu deities?

Then, approximately two weeks later, on October 13, channel 10 (one of our local t.v. stations), did a short segment on their weekly t.v. news magazine show about the 1909 article and some local people actively looking for it out at the Canyon. I contacted the producer of the segment and left my name and phone number, telling him to give it to a couple of the people he had interviewed, as I could supply them with this information regarding Isis Temple. At the very least they could go with good telescopes and look for cave entrances from the Rim to confirm their existence. Simple.

As of yet no one has called me back.

I plan to check the condition and strength of my old telescope and go there myself soon. A severely damaged disc in my back prevents me from an actual backpacking trip to Isis Temple, as the trip is extremely arduous and requires at least six days of backpacking in some of the most challenging terrain on the planet.

The next thing I did was call the "Back Country" information line (520-638-7875) at the Grand Canyon, where permits are bought for backpacking and extended hikes, both on and off trails. The lady was very talkative, polite and helpful. She even suggested two books I should read on possible routes to Isis Temple since there are no trails to it. Then I casually brought up the subject of possibly exploring caves I had heard about at Isis Temple and asked her if she could confirm their existence. Her reply was a simple, but emphatic "NO". Then a long pause. Then very curtly she said the Park Dept. was about to engage in a Canyon-wide research project into the bat population and habitation, to make sure they were not being endangered. Everyone was to stay out of caves she said. That ended our conversation. Interesting, but not conclusive.

In the meantime, this whole thing was getting under my curious skin a bit. I decided to approach the subject a little differently. I was going to see if there was a geometrical connection between Isis Temple and the Great Pyramid of Giza. Why the Great Pyramid? From my knowledge of sacred geometry I knew it to be a central figure in a planetary grid system. As a former, avid backpacker myself, and having some knowledge of cartology, it took me no time to get the exact longitude and latitude of the center of Isis Temple. I then began searching on the www for the exact coordinates of the center of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.

That's when things started to turn REALLY curious and informative.

My web search brought me more than I could have hoped for. It led me to the work of a man named Carl Munck. (see: http://www.pyramidmatrix.com) Over ten years ago he had started doing a similar thing that I was attempting, but he had started at Stonehenge, trying to find a longitude/latitude relationship with the Great Pyramid. His continued work led to the discovery of what is now called Archeocartology, and the key to the system is using the Great Pyramid as Prime Meridian rather than Greenwich . What he had done was eventually find a whole code system that the ancient's knew about and had used in determining where to place sacred temples, and sacred sites. It is simply known as THE CODE, or Code of the Ancients. He has several books out on the subject, a newsletter and several videos.

From THE CODE we get factual, mathematically provable evidence that all ancient sites, megaliths, temples, stone circles, effigies and certain natural formations and vortexes across the entire face of the globe are very precisely located on a global coordinate system in relation to the Great Pyramid. ( I know, this is hard to believe, but read on) Not only that, but an ancient numerology system known as Gematria (used by Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Babylonians, Romans and others of the ancient world) is used in the manipulation of the numbers that relates the numbers to other key locations, mathematical constants such as Pi and the radian, and the positions of the sites themselves given in the geometry of their physical construction.

GEMATRIA and THE CODE can be considered to be "whole brain" methodologies. In other words, both bi-lateral functions of the brain must be employed to reach applicable and functional results. Or, the left, rational/verbal/lineal, side of the brain and the right, intuitive/imaginative/non-lineal, side must work together, in much the same way as when viewing stereo-gram images, sometimes known as 'Magic Eye' pictures also. (Those pictures that were popular a few years back that looked like just a mass of colored dots when first seen, but after gazing in a particular manner for a while a complete 3-D picture or scene 'popped' out to your vision. Usually children and young adults have an easier time seeing the pictures because they are not yet as completely absorbed with just left brain, rational, thinking habits, and their right brain, creative, side is more flexible.)

THE CODE of Carl Munck dovetails perfectly with the planetary grid system and the related Platonic Grid Lines found by Ivan Sanderson, Bruce Cathie, William Becker and Bethi Hagens. The world grid system (http://www.ascension2000.com/convergence/9918.html) is commonly known as the Unified Vector Geometry 120 Polyhedron. Interestingly enough, THE CODE also is applicable to the Planet Mars, when the North/South Prime Meridian passes exactly through nose of the famous "Face" in the Cydonia area and the "D & M Pyramid".

Still with me? I hope so, because this is all mathematically verified.

Aside from the obvious question that this arouses regarding how such ancient people could have knowledge of such a system and implement if for thousands of years, (which, because there is no short answer for that question, I will not address here) there is also the question of how such feats were accomplished with so much accuracy without the aid of modern technology, like our Global Positioning System (GPS) which uses satellite telemetry and computer accuracy to achieve what the ancients accomplished with ... what ?

When this sort of question arises in my talks and classes, I pull out an object to demonstrate the dynamics of geometry and simplicity. It is a solid object with no moving parts or batteries, and it fits in your hand. It has a unique property about it that no mind on Earth, that I am aware of, can explain. (and it has been under heavy scrutiny by some of the best minds of engineering and physics at University levels) It absolutely defies one of the basic laws of physics and motion. (and this is not my imagination! Just ask my wife.)

People usually gasp and don't believe their eyes when they first see what this object does. And it does this without high technology. I show it to them over and over again, and let them try it for themselves, and it always works. And the key to the object is in its proportions, its shape, its geometry...the mathematics involved. Plain and simple. (Ask me and I'll show it to anyone at any time, anyplace. It is not my invention and it has been around for almost 30 years, yet few people know of it.)

If you know the key to something, or have the something that employs the key, optional methodologies are available to use. It is obvious the ancients had optional methodologies in finding, plotting and implementing building sites based upon a longitude and latitude not all that dissimilar to our own. It is also obvious from the data that the ancients new exactly where the equator was and employed it.

Another device that should be mentioned is a survey and navigational tool designed by Crichton Miller, who received a patent on it just recently in the United Kingdom. The device is nothing more than two pieces of straight wood formed into a cross with a pivot point where they meet, a plumb line coming down from the pivot point, and a semi-circular scale (similar to a protractor) attached. It looks very much like a Celtic Cross. It is very accurate and requires no batteries. (see: http://www.dailygrail.com/ misc/cem130700.html for complete details ) A book about the device is due in the Spring of 2001. It is believed this device, or similar, was used in surveying for the Great Pyramid, and also employed as a navigational tool for ocean-going explorations. And speaking of accuracy, as well as complexity of problem solving capabilities with no complex technology or batteries, think for a minute of the slide rule and the abacus.

Anyway, back to the story here....

Well, now I had the longitude and latitude of the Great Pyramid, and a mathematical system for finding a relationship between Isis Temple and the Great Pyramid. But, I got lazy here. I contacted Michael Lawrence Morton, who I had found through another web site . ( http://www.greatdreams.com/gem1.htm ) ( also http://hometown.aol/marscode/giza.html) I gave him the coordinates for Isis Temple and let him do the math and find the mathematical correspondences. Since Michael was very familiar with THE CODE, also familiar with all the mathematical constants and numerous other sites and their mathematical connections, and had also discovered and applied THE CODE to the local stars and astronomy (the Archeo-Sky Matrix ), I felt confident in his abilities and expertise.

In his words, Isis Temple is a "...major....major site !!!" This he could safely say with confidence because the numbers related to so many other major sites, including the Great Pyramid, and with numbers typically accurate to complete whole numbers, to within 7 and 8 decimal places, and decimal harmonics from 7 to 8 decimal places !

The following is a brief synopsis of just some of the mathematical connections to Isis Temple. The search is still ongoing. Statistics relating to certain "dates of occurrences" and the Gematria of a personal nature that were found have been left out. The math proof of the following findings is attached at the end of this narration, with full credit graciously attributed to Carl Munck and especially Michael Lawrence Morton, without whom this search would have come to a dead halt.

Isis Temple is mathematically connected to:

* slope angle of the Great Pyramid * grid point value of the Great Pyramid * derived height of Great Pyramid with capstone included * decimal harmonic of the East longitude of the Sphinx at Giza * decimal harmonic of the West longitude of the Chephren Pyramid at Giza * decimal harmonic of the tangent of arc-distance from Earth's equator to either pole * radius of Moon * ratio of radius of Stonehenge's Sarsen Circle and Radian (deg) * decimal harmonic of generic area of a circle * grid point value of the star Sirius, circa 2000 a.d. * grid point value of the star Regulus, circa 2000 a.d. * East latitude, in arc-min., of the "Face" at Cydonia on Mars

At this point, it doesn't matter if Isis Temple is the location mentioned in the 1909 article. At this point it doesn't matter if the article was a hoax or not. Maybe it doesn't matter if archeological information has been withheld from the public (in this regard I am more inclined to believe it is a matter of information filtration brought about by a social process rather than a conspiracy). Maybe it doesn't matter if there are or are not sealed caves in Isis Temple. But I, for one, continue the search. There is still a vast treasure to behold that makes that which we carry in our pocket quite moot when compared to the big picture.

Archeocartographic findings of ISIS TEMPLE based upon THE CODE of Carl Munck and the ARCHEO-SKY MATRIX Code, mathematics and correlations found by Michael Lawrence Morton.

location of Isis Temple N. of Equator and West of Great Pyramid, Giza: 36 deg 08 min 27 sec N. 143 deg 16 min 14.8 sec W.G.

36 x 8 x 27 = 7776 N. 143 x 16 x 14.8 = 33862.4 W.G.

33862.4 / 7776 = 4.3547325 G.P. (grid point)

4.353957151 (G.P.) = Pi x 1.177245771 x 1.177245771 ( 1.177245771 = ratio of the radius of Stonehenge's Sarsen Circle in British feet and Radian (deg.) .....1.177245771 = 57.29577951 / 48.6693441...also the decimal harmonic in arc-seconds of the West longitude of the Chephren Pyramid at Giza, the East longitude of the Sphinx at Giza, and the tangent of arc-distance, adding to actual statute mileage figure, in statute miles, from Earth's equator to either pole....6214.85528 )

4.353957151 (G.P.) x 248.0502134 = 1080 (248.0502134 = grid point value of Great Pyramid.....1080 = mean radius of Moon in statute miles, and 1080 is also the feminine gematrian number for alchemical fusion where 1080 + 666 = 1746 )

33862.4 (W.G) x 57.29577951 x 57.29577951 = 10.31324031 ( 10.31324031 = decimal harmonic of the square arc degrees of a circle, the generic area of a circle, where Pi x 57.29577951 x 57.29577951 = 10313.24031)

10.31324031 = 4.3539557149 (G.P.) x 2.368705056 ( 2.368705056 = grid point value of the binary star Sirius, circa 2000 a.d. )

270 / 4.353957149 (G.P.) = ( Pi x 19.7392088) ( 270 is average number of human gestation days...divided by Isis's Temple grid point value of 4.353957149 = the grid point value of the binary star Regulus, star in the heart of the Lion constellation Leo, or 19.7392088 x Pi. Also, 270 = 9 x 30, and 30 is the grid point value of the intersection of 7th Ave. and Indian School Rd. in Phoenix, Arizona, which is where, on March 13, 1997, 8:30 p.m., the "Phoenix UFO" was witnessed to hover for 4 minutes. March 13, 1997 is 5764 days before December 21, 2012 a.d., end of the Mayan calendar. 5764.166073 is the derived original full height, including capstone, of the Great Pyramid in regular British inches. )

30 / 4.353957149 (G.P.) = 6.890283706 (6.890283706 = arc-minutes East of Mars Prime Meridian = latitude of "The Face" at Cydonia. ) (see also: http://farshores.topcities.com/farshores/mlmindex.htm for all of the above)

Additional interviews on the finds mentioned above and other mysteries can be found in a older post i made called

ancient-egyptian-artifacts-found-in-grand-canyon-t27504.html

The purpose of these stories, if you believe the information presented, is to illustrate that, given the so called in depth knowledge of history, that things indeed do slip threw the cracks, or just do not fit into the paradigm made by the establishment.
Additional information to follow, showing that the Egyptians were nomads who discovered ancient ruins and basically decided to move into the area and the nature of, and differences compared to later Egyptian construction., also, a video that presents the possibility that all translations of ancient could indeed be incorrect, and how this knowledge came to be.
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