The Ringmakers And Other Bizarre Anomalies Near Saturn

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PostSat Apr 19, 2014 8:27 am » by NamelessGhoul


Cassini Eyes Possible New Moon Forming In Saturn’s Orbit

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Newly released images from NASA’s Cassini probe have revealed the “birthing” of a tiny moon in orbit around Saturn.

The images, taken exactly one year ago on Tuesday, showed evidence of the formation of a tiny icy moon, named “Peggy” – according to a new report on the find in the journal Icarus. The study authors said the discovery could provide information about the formation of Saturn’s other moons as well as the process behind planet formation. “We have not seen anything like this before,” said study author Carl Murray of Queen Mary University of London. “We may be looking at the act of birth, where this object is just leaving the rings and heading off to be a moon in its own right.” Cassini’s images show disruptions on the very fringe of Saturn’s A ring – the outermost from the planet’s sizeable, bright rings. One disruption is an arc approximately 20 percent more brilliant than its surroundings, 750 miles long and 6 miles wide. Researchers also discovered unusual lumps in the generally smooth profile at the ring’s edge. The study authors said the arc and lumps are attributable to the gravitational effects of an object in close proximity.

The researchers said they do not expect the object to grow any bigger, in fact – it may even be deteriorating. However, the process of its formation and outward motion supports our knowledge of how Saturn’s icy moons, like the cloud-wrapped Titan and watery Enceladus, could have developed in more substantial rings long ago. “Witnessing the possible birth of a tiny moon is an exciting, unexpected event,” said Linda Spilker, a Cassini Project Scientist who was not among the study’s authors. According to Spilker, the NASA probe’s orbit will shift closer to the exterior edge of the A ring in late 2016 – offering a chance to study Peggy in more detail and perhaps even capture pictures of it. Attempts to take pictures of the moon have been unsuccessful so far, as the new satellite is thought to be no more than about a half mile across.

Two primary factors are thought to have played a role in the analysis of Saturn’s icy moons: size of the moons tends to increase as their proximity to the planet increases and the moons are mostly made of ice. Researchers currently suspect that the moons formed from icy ring particles and then shifted away from the planet – possibly combining with other moons on the way.

“The theory holds that Saturn long ago had a much more massive ring system capable of giving birth to larger moons,” Murray said. “As the moons formed near the edge, they depleted the rings and evolved, so the ones that formed earliest are the largest and the farthest out.”

The study authors said it’s possible moon formation around Saturn has ended – with the rings mostly depleted of moon-forming materials. Because they may be seeing a completely unique event, the study team said they are trying to get every bit of information they can from the Cassini images.

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PostSat Apr 19, 2014 2:27 pm » by Skydog


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Mountains on Saturns moon Iapetus fell from the sky.
It may sound like something out of “Chicken Little,” but at some point in the history of Saturn’s moon Iapetus, the sky was actually falling: Scientists reported this week that an entire 800-mile-long mountain range along the moon’s equator formed after it fell from space.

Iapetus doesn’t feature the telltale signs of volcanism and geologic activity that typically build mountains, which had made the existence of the bulging equatorial ridge a bit of a mystery. In a new study, researchers constructed 3-D maps of the mountain range using images captured by the Cassini spacecraft. By analyzing the shape of the triangular peaks, some up to 12 miles high, researchers concluded that the mountains were created from material that crashed onto the surface of Iapetus at some point in its history.

more here,
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-bri ... m-the-sky/

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PostSat Apr 19, 2014 2:38 pm » by NamelessGhoul


Skydog wrote:Image

Mountains on Saturns moon Iapetus fell from the sky.
It may sound like something out of “Chicken Little,” but at some point in the history of Saturn’s moon Iapetus, the sky was actually falling: Scientists reported this week that an entire 800-mile-long mountain range along the moon’s equator formed after it fell from space.

Iapetus doesn’t feature the telltale signs of volcanism and geologic activity that typically build mountains, which had made the existence of the bulging equatorial ridge a bit of a mystery. In a new study, researchers constructed 3-D maps of the mountain range using images captured by the Cassini spacecraft. By analyzing the shape of the triangular peaks, some up to 12 miles high, researchers concluded that the mountains were created from material that crashed onto the surface of Iapetus at some point in its history.

more here,
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-bri ... m-the-sky/

Neat stuff, Skydog!
:flop:
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PostSat Apr 19, 2014 3:52 pm » by Rich316


Cosmine wrote:That's the plain truth... I've been there once 25 years ago. Not as big ship... I think it was 5000 km and narrower... kinda made of some sort of one piece white plastic... inside and out, a opening seems to appear from nowhere to let us in... inside the doors open out of the wall, where it seems like a plain wall... if they want furniture it's kinda growing off the walls and floor... no lights, it's the plastic that's luminous...

The ship was full of Nordic's and two tall whites... the female took me to a room and talked to me.... that's were i witness theffurniture poping... sincerely regret but i didn't remember a single word of what she said...

Also the ship was invisible up to a certain distance then it suddenly appears....

Our "rocket " took about (i think ) two and a half minutes to get there... i don't know how it works...


Please don't ask me more about it....

If you don't hear of my delirium in the next few weeks it Whould be cause of this

:scary:


Ok, but you can't expect people not to ask you questions. I got a few!!

You said "The ship was full of Nordic's and two tall whites" So were the Nordics not tall whites? You seem to suggest the 2 tall whites were different to the Nordics in that sentence ??

What do you mean by this "Not as big ship... I think it was 5000 km and narrower" Not as big ship - I don't understand what you mean by that. ??

You said 25 years ago.. I assume you were young then? how old were you?

Do you think it may have been a lucid dream of some sort?

Did you tell anyone else about it at the time, like your parents? What did they say?
Did you remember it straight afterwards or did it take regression hynosis to bring it out?

Sorry, but you have a great story there, I'm all ears :flop:

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PostSun Apr 27, 2014 3:13 am » by Cosmine


I wroted you a nice reply full of details...then youtube took me.... everithingy is now erased... fck
I'll come back to you when i find an other hour to waste... Rich

:cheers:

Lukas this is unacepectable...to whom this forum belongs you or youtube.. .fck

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PostMon Jun 02, 2014 11:27 pm » by NamelessGhoul


there's something in a crater of Iapetus..


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PostTue Sep 29, 2015 11:53 pm » by NamelessGhoul


Something Strange Is Happening Inside Saturn

Unusual ripples in Saturn's rings are revealing the mysterious inner workings of the great gas giant. Planetary scientists and modelers are slowly picking apart that mystery.

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Billions of particles race around Saturn's 170,000-mile-wide (273,600 kilometers) set of rings, which are mostly water ice with a smattering of rock. The rings are full of activity, including waves that ricochet outward in spiral patterns, most caused by the gravitational pull of Saturn's 62 moons. Waves caused by the moons, which orbit outside the rings' sphere, always travel outward. But then there's a set of waves heading inward. That means there's something moving inside, too. Most scientists' models of Saturn and other gas giants assume the planet is pretty uniform — just a large gas envelope surrounding a small, dense core that's perhaps the size of Earth. But by studying the rings' waves, researchers are finding the picture much more complicated. "The one thing that might produce this [series of waves] is that some sort of disturbance inside Saturn itself is spinning around with a period that's less than 7 hours," Phillip Nicholson, a planetary scientist at Cornell University in New York, told Space.com. Researchers first noticed hints of that disturbance in the 1990s, and Nicholson's team used more precise measurements to fully document the ring waves' structures, which reflect the oscillations of the planet within — sort of like recurring Saturn quakes.

Right now, measuring those oscillations offers scientists the best possible chance to grasp what's going on far inside the planet, like Saturn's internal rotation or structure, which appears to be more complicated than previously thought, scientists say. "Even dropping a probe into the atmosphere would not necessarily help a lot, because the probe will only get down to a pressure of five or 10 atmospheres before it gets cooked or squashed," Nicholson said. "We need to go much deeper to understand this."

Everything is ringing

Saturn isn't the only astronomical body with a groove; for many years, researchers have been watching the vibrations of the sun and other stars. Even Earth has a hum, and scientists use whole-Earth oscillations, triggered by large earthquakes, to discern what's going on inside. "The basic idea is that we know of many stars, including our own sun, that oscillate at certain frequencies that are determined by the actual internal structure of the planet or the star," Jim Fuller, a researcher at the California Institute of Technology, told Space.com. Fuller studies and models those oscillations, including those in Saturn, building off of initial work by Nicholson and his collaborator Matthew Hedman, now at the University of Idaho. Tools like NASA's orbiting Kepler Space Telescope, which precisely measures the brightness of distant stars while searching for planets orbiting around them, can send back information about changes in brightness detailed enough to see the stars' shifting— a field called astroseismology. Helioseismology, which measures sound waves below the sun's surface, has given researchers a detailed understanding of the flow of materials deep within the sun. Seismographs can measure whole-Earth vibrations directly, using the same process as ordinary seismology, which has told researchers about conditions deep inside Earth. But it is much more challenging to detect movements within planets humans aren't sitting on.

Enter kronoseismology, the study of oscillations within Saturn. Nicholson and Hedman chose the name because Kronos (or Cronus) is the Greek equivalent of the Roman god Saturn, a mighty Titan, whose namesake planet has correspondingly mighty rings. Those rings act as a rare window into the movements at the heart of the planet. NASA's Cassini spacecraft, which is currently exploring Saturn and its moons, has carefully measured how much light from individual stars shines through the rings with its Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, which allows scientists to calculate the changes in the rings' density at different locations. Researchers can pull out the patterns of ring density, in the form of waves, caused by the oscillations of mass within Saturn itself, and use those patterns to learn about the planet, like using the sounds made by a violin or a drum to determine its shape.

Something strange

When Nicholson put together the series of waves caused by Saturn's movement for a 2013 paper, they didn't quite add up. Instead of a regular pattern of vibrations all building on one another, he was seeing multiples of some waves and missing others.

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Caption: Different oscillations of Saturn cause certain distinctive patterns in the planet's rings. By analyzing them, researchers are determining what's happening inside the gas giant. If the planet were very simple, it would have only one of each of these oscillation patterns, rotating at different speeds; instead, it has multiples of some and is missing others.

"If Saturn were a nice big ball of liquid hydrogen and helium, liquid and gas, it really should only have one frequency associated with each of these overtones," he said. Instead, the measurements were like a violin that plays multiple discordant tones when one string is strummed. There's "something a bit wrong with your violin, if that's the case," he said. Fuller has conducted follow-up research to try to find the possible causes of the discord. "Saturn must have a layer deep down inside of it that's stably stratified," he said. "For some reason, the fluid is very stable and doesn't move around very much ... And that part is new, because the conventional models of giant planets are just convective envelopes [where the materials move freely to exchange heat] all the way down to their core. But what I found is that those very simple models can't explain what we're seeing in the rings." Fuller suggested that the stable layers could have a number of causes. By modeling each potential scenario and measuring the waves it would create, he and others are hoping to narrow down the possibilities. One explanation, he said, is that the helium is separating from its mix with hydrogen lower down in the planet, because of higher pressure, and condensing into helium raindrops that fall even deeper. Then, the boundary between the high-helium area below and the mostly hydrogen area above would be a stable border, Fuller said.

Another explanation might be that the ice and rock of the core are dissolving upward into the hydrogen and helium that make up most of the planet. That, too, would create smooth layers of fluid beneath the turbulent gas above. "In the past, people have thought of these ideas, but it's been very hard to test them because we have no way of seeing what's inside of Saturn," Fuller said. "But with the seismology, for the first time, we're starting to get a glimpse of that interior structure. It's still pretty primitive, because we can only detect some of Saturn's operations, but it's enough to give us some interesting prospects, at the very least.

Lifting the veil

New models of a gas giant's interior will help reveal which of these possibilities, or others, could match Saturn's real oscillations. "We're mainly waiting for theoretical developments," Nicholson said. In the meantime, the Cassini orbiter is continuing to grab detailed data that will lend greater focus to the findings. When it spirals into even lower orbits, it might be able to reveal more about subtle changes in the planet's gravity as well. Researchers are also looking at Uranus' rings to see if they can discern anything about the inside of that planet — and there are many other rings to consider out in the solar system. But for now, Saturn offers the best glimpse into the depths of a gas giant, which can be compared and contrasted with the distant planets seen around other stars. Exoplanet researchers like Jonathan Fortney at University of California, Santa Cruz, are eager for anything that will pierce the veil of the gas giants. In fact, he said, one of his graduate students is waiting until Cassini plunges into Saturn, in 2017, to combine the new gravitational data with kronoseismology to get an even more detailed picture.

"There's a paradigm of giant planets being pretty simple objects, where they have a core of ice and rock, and this tremendous envelope of hydrogen/helium on top of that," Fortney told Space.com. "That's how people have mostly modeled giant planets for 50 years. But what the kronoseismology tells us is, there's some region that is strange, there's some part of the bottom of the envelope that's not simple, that's not convective. It tells us that Saturn is not a simple object; there's something more going on there."

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PostFri Jan 08, 2016 7:06 pm » by NamelessGhoul




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