Heaven Is Real: A Doctor’s Experience With the Afterlife

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PostTue Oct 09, 2012 10:48 am » by Spock


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As a neurosurgeon, I did not believe in the phenomenon of near-death experiences. I grew up in a scientific world, the son of a neurosurgeon. I followed my father’s path and became an academic neurosurgeon, teaching at Harvard Medical School and other universities. I understand what happens to the brain when people are near death, and I had always believed there were good scientific explanations for the heavenly out-of-body journeys described by those who narrowly escaped death.

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The brain is an astonishingly sophisticated but extremely delicate mechanism. Reduce the amount of oxygen it receives by the smallest amount and it will react. It was no big surprise that people who had undergone severe trauma would return from their experiences with strange stories. But that didn’t mean they had journeyed anywhere real.

Although I considered myself a faithful Christian, I was so more in name than in actual belief. I didn’t begrudge those who wanted to believe that Jesus was more than simply a good man who had suffered at the hands of the world. I sympathized deeply with those who wanted to believe that there was a God somewhere out there who loved us unconditionally. In fact, I envied such people the security that those beliefs no doubt provided. But as a scientist, I simply knew better than to believe them myself.

In the fall of 2008, however, after seven days in a coma during which the human part of my brain, the neocortex, was inactivated, I experienced something so profound that it gave me a scientific reason to believe in consciousness after death.

Alexander discusses his experience on the Science channel's 'Through the Wormhole.'


I know how pronouncements like mine sound to skeptics, so I will tell my story with the logic and language of the scientist I am.

Very early one morning four years ago, I awoke with an extremely intense headache. Within hours, my entire cortex—the part of the brain that controls thought and emotion and that in essence makes us human—had shut down. Doctors at Lynchburg General Hospital in Virginia, a hospital where I myself worked as a neurosurgeon, determined that I had somehow contracted a very rare bacterial meningitis that mostly attacks newborns. E. coli bacteria had penetrated my cerebrospinal fluid and were eating my brain.

When I entered the emergency room that morning, my chances of survival in anything beyond a vegetative state were already low. They soon sank to near nonexistent. For seven days I lay in a deep coma, my body unresponsive, my higher-order brain functions totally offline.

Then, on the morning of my seventh day in the hospital, as my doctors weighed whether to discontinue treatment, my eyes popped open.


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‘You have nothing to fear.’ ‘There is nothing you can do wrong.’ The message flooded me with a vast and crazy sensation of relief. (Photo illustration by Newsweek; Source: Buena Vista Images-Getty Images)

There is no scientific explanation for the fact that while my body lay in coma, my mind—my conscious, inner self—was alive and well. While the neurons of my cortex were stunned to complete inactivity by the bacteria that had attacked them, my brain-free consciousness journeyed to another, larger dimension of the universe: a dimension I’d never dreamed existed and which the old, pre-coma me would have been more than happy to explain was a simple impossibility.

But that dimension—in rough outline, the same one described by countless subjects of near-death experiences and other mystical states—is there. It exists, and what I saw and learned there has placed me quite literally in a new world: a world where we are much more than our brains and bodies, and where death is not the end of consciousness but rather a chapter in a vast, and incalculably positive, journey.

I’m not the first person to have discovered evidence that consciousness exists beyond the body. Brief, wonderful glimpses of this realm are as old as human history. But as far as I know, no one before me has ever traveled to this dimension (a) while their cortex was completely shut down, and (b) while their body was under minute medical observation, as mine was for the full seven days of my coma.

All the chief arguments against near-death experiences suggest that these experiences are the results of minimal, transient, or partial malfunctioning of the cortex. My near-death experience, however, took place not while my cortex was malfunctioning, but while it was simply off. This is clear from the severity and duration of my meningitis, and from the global cortical involvement documented by CT scans and neurological examinations. According to current medical understanding of the brain and mind, there is absolutely no way that I could have experienced even a dim and limited consciousness during my time in the coma, much less the hyper-vivid and completely coherent odyssey I underwent.


Through the Wormhole segment:


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PostTue Oct 09, 2012 2:40 pm » by Poooooot


Oooh! I saw him on a special about near-death experiences. VERY COOL! :flop:
Matthew 7
“Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.

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PostTue Oct 09, 2012 3:40 pm » by Arella


Thanks spock keep them coming....i was looking for something to do for a few hours...love your posts about the afterlife. :flop:

I salute you sir
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PostWed Oct 10, 2012 4:17 pm » by Spock


This is such a powerful quote, coming from such an intellectual that, once again, had to unlearn what he thought he "knew" to be fact after his subjective experience.



Dr. Eben Alexander MD wrote:One thing that we will have to let go of is this addiction to simplistic, primitive, reductive materialism. Because, there is really no way, that I can see, a reductive materialist model becoming remotely in the right ballpark to explain what we really know about consciousness now. And coming from a neurosurgeon who, before my coma, thought I was quite certain how the brain and mind interacted, and it was very clear in that realm that the brain gives you consciousness and everything else, and when the brain dies, there goes consciousness, soul, mind; it's all gone, and it was clear. Now, having been through my coma, I can tell you that's exactly wrong, and that in fact, the mind and consciousness are independent of the brain.


Dr. Eben Alexander

Birth: Charlotte, North Carolina, December, 1953

Education:
1972 Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, NH
1975 A.B. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
1980 M.D. Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC
Postdoctoral Training

Internship and Residencies:
1980-1981 Intern in General Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
1981-1983 Resident in Neurological Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
1985 Acting Resident in Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
1985-1987 Resident in Neurological Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
1987 Senior Registrar and Cerebrovascular Fellow, Neurosurgical Service, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England, U.K.
1988-1990 Instructor in Surgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Research Fellowships:
1983-1985 Research Fellow in Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
1987 Research Fellow in Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Certifications:
1991 Diplomate, American Board of Neurological Surgery, November, 1991
1996 Inducted as a Fellow, American College of Surgeons (F.A.C.S.)

Publications:

Publications in Medicine
1. Soules, MR, Hughes, CL Jr., Garcia JR, Livengood, CH, Prystowsky, MR, Alexander, E III. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: Role of human chorionic gonadotropin and 17- hydroxyprogesterone.Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1980: 55(6): 696-700.

2. Alexander, E., Jr., Alexander E., III. German influence on the work of Harvey Cushing, the pioneer of neurosurgery in America. Neurosurgery. 1981: 9 (5) 501-505.

3. Alexander, E., III, Friedman, AH. Characteristics of adrenergic receptors in human pial arterioles. Surgical Forum. 1983: 43: 508.

4. Alexander, E, III, Black, P McL, Liszczak, TM, Zervas, NT. Delayed CSF lavage for arteriographic and morphological vasospasm after experimental SAH. J Neurosurg. 1985: 63:9 49-958.

5. Rossitch, E, Jr, Alexander, E, III, Schiff, SJ, Bullard, DE. Computer tomography guided stereotactic aspiration of a brainstem abscess. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 1988: 90:365-368.

6. Rossitch E, Jr., Carrazana, EJ, Ellenbogen, RG, Alexander, E, III. Kluver-Bucy syndrome following recovery from transtentorial herniation. British Journal of Neurosurgery. 1989: 3: 503-506.

7. Alexander E, III, Siddon, RL, Loeffler, JS. The acute onset of nausea and vomiting following stereotactic radiosurgery: Correlation with total dose to area postrema. Surgical Neurology. 1989:32: 40-44.

8. Loeffler, JS, Alexander E, III, Siddon RL, Saunders, WM, Coleman, CN, Winston, KR. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations using a standard linear accelerator. International J Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics. 1989: 17: 673-677.

9. Alexander, E, III, Rossitch, E, Jr., Small, K, Rossenwasser, GO, Abson, P. Merkel cell carcinoma: long term survival in a patient with proven brain metastasis and presumed choroid metastasis. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 1989: 91 (4):317-320.

10. Small, KW, Rosenwasser, GO, Alexander, E III, Rossitch, E Jr, Dutton JJ. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma. Annals of Ophthalmology. 1990: 22:187-190.

11. Loeffler, JS, Alexander, E, III. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of intracranial tumors. Oncology. 1990: 4(3): 21-31.

12. Loeffler, JS, Kooy, HM, Wen, PY, Fine, HA, Cheng, C-W, Mannarino, EG, Tsai, JS, Alexander, E, III. The treatment of recurrent brain metastases with stereotactic radiosurgery. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1990: 8(4): 576-582.

13. Rossitch, E Jr, Moore, MR, Alexander, E, III, Black, PMcL. The neurosurgeon's neurosurgeon. Cushing operates on a Penfield. Surgical Neurology. 1990: 33:150-153.

14. Crawford, JM, Rossitch, E, Jr., Oakes, WJ, Alexander, E, III. Arteriovenous malformation of the great vein of Galen associated with patent ductus arteriosus: Report of three cases and review of the literature. Child's Nervous System. 1990: 6:18-22.

15. Loeffler, JS, Rossitch E, Jr., Siddon, RL, Moore, MR, Rockoff, MA, Alexander, E, III. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in the treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformations and tumors in children. Pediatrics. 1990: 85(5): 774-782.

16. Alexander E III, Moore, MR, Siddon, RL, Rossitch E, Jr., Loeffler, JS. Successful management of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with stereotactic external beam using a standard linear accelerator. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. 1990: 54 + 55: 548-549.

17. Alexander E III, Rossitch E, Jr., Siddon, RL, Moore, MR, Loeffler, JS. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery with a linear accelerator in the treatment of pediatric intracranial tumors. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. 1990: 54 + 55: 549-550.

18. Loeffler JS, Siddon RL, Wen PY, Nedzi LA, Alexander E III. Stereotactic radiosurgery of the brain using a standard linear accelerator: study of early and late effects. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 1990: 17:311-321.

19. Nashold, BS, Jr., Rossitch, E, Jr., Alexander, E, III. Dorsal root entry zone surgery for pain management: An update. Pain Management. 1991: 4(1): 15-23.

20. Alexander E III, Friedman, AH. Radioligand binding to adrenergic receptors in human pial membranes. Neurosurgery. 1990: 27(1):52-59.

21. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Hochberg FH, Wen PY, Morris J, Siddon RL, Schoene W, Morse RH, Black PMcL. Clinical patterns of failure following stereotactic interstitial irradiation in malignant gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1990:19:1455-1462.

22. Carvalho PA, Schwartz RB, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Zimmermann RE, Nagel JS, Holman BL. Extracranial metastatic glioblastoma: appearance on T1-201 chloride/Tc- 99m-hmpao SPECT. J Nucl Med 1991: 32:322-324.

23. Rossitch E Jr, Alexander, E III, Black, PM, Cooke JP. L-arginine normalizes endothelial function in cerebral vessels from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. J Clin Invest. 1991: 87: 1295-1299.

24. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Wen PY, Shea WM, Coleman CN, Kooy HM, Fine HA, Nedzi LA, Silver B, Riese NE, Black PM. Results of stereotactic brachytherapy used in the initial management of patients with glioblastoma. J Nat Cancer Inst. 1990: 82:1918- 1921.

25. Tsai J-S, Buck BA, Svensson GK, Alexander E III, Cheng C-W, Mannarino EG, Loeffler JS. Quality assurance in stereotactic radiosurgery using a standard linear accelerator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 21: 737-748, 1991.

26. Kooy HM, Nedzi LA, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Cheng CW, Mannarino E, Holupka E, Siddon RL. Treatment planning for stereotactic radiosurgery of intracranial lesions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 21: 683-693, 1991.

27. Nedzi LA, Kooy H, Alexander E III, Gelman RS, Loeffler JS. Variables associated with the development of complications from radiosurgery of intracranial tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 21: 591-599, 1991.

28. Holman BL, Zimmerman RE, Johnson KA, Carvalho PA, Schwartz RB, Loeffler JS, Alexander E, Pelizzari CA, Chen GTY. Computer-assisted superimposition of magnetic resonance and high resolution Technetium-99m-HMPAO and Thallium-201 SPECT images of the brain. J Nucl Med 32(8):1478-1484, 1991.

29. Loeffler JS, Macklis RM, Wen PY, Fine HA, Alexander E III, Coleman CN. Alternative and future strategies in the treatment of malignant gliomas. Semin Rad Oncol,1: 69-78, 1991.

30. Alexander, E III, Loeffler, JS: Introduction, to Radiosurgery: Enhancement of Clinical Excellence, Alexander, E III, Loeffler, JS, Gildenberg, PL, Franklin, PO (Eds). Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 1992: 57(1): 5-6.

31. Coleman CN, Noll L, Riese N, Buswell L, Howes AE, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Wen P, Harris JR, Kramer RA, Hurwitz SJ, Neben TY, Grigsby P. Final report of the Phase I trial of continuous infusion etanidazole (SR2508): A radiation therapy oncology group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 22: 577-580, 1992.

32. Hurwitz SJ, Coleman CN, Riese N, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Buswell L, Neben TY, Shargel L, Kramer RA. Distribution of etanidazole into human brain tumors: Implications for treating high grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 22:573-576, 1992.

33a. Schwartz RB, Carvalho PA, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Folkerth R, Holman BL. Dual isotope SPECT using T1-201 and Tc-99m hmpao in the differentiation of radiation necrosis from recurrent glioma. AJNR 12: 1187-1192, 1991.

33b. Schwartz RB, Carvalho PA, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Folkerth R, Holman, BL: Radiation necrosis versus high - grade recurrent glioma: differentiation by using dual isotope SPECT using T1-201 and Tc-99m HMPAO. AJR 158: 399-404, 1992

34. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Shea WM, Wen PY, Fine HA, Kooy HM, Black P McL: Radiosurgery as part of the initial management of patients with malignant gliomas. J Clinical Oncology, 10:1379-1385,1992.

35. Carvalho PA, Schwartz RB, Alexander E III, Garada BM, Zimmerman RE, Loeffler JS, Holman BL. Detection of recurrent gliomas with quantitative Thallium-201/ Technetium-99m hmpao single-photon emission computed tomography. J Neurosurg 77 (4): 565-570, 1992.

36. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS. Radiosurgery for intracranial vascular malformations: techniques, results and complications. Clin Neurosurg 39: 273-291, 1992.

37. Nedzi LA, Kooy HM, Alexander E III, Svensson GK, Loeffler JS: Dynamic field shaping for stereotactic radiosurgery: A modeling study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25:859-869, 1993.

38. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Schwartz RB, Johnson KA, Carvalho PA, Garada BM, Zimmerman RE, Holman BL. Thallium-201 Technetium-99m HMPAO stereotactic craniotomies in heavily irradiated malignant glioma patients. Acta Neurochirurgica 122: 215-217, 1993.

39. Tishler RB, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, Duma C, Alexander E III, Kooy HM, Flickinger JC: Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 27: 215-221, 1993.

40. Kooy HM, Nedzi LA, Ledoux RL, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Dose-volume histogram computations for small intracranial volumes. Med Phys 20: 755-760, 1993.

41. Black P McL, Tarbell N, Alexander E III, Rockoff M, Zhan, M, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic techniques in managing pediatric brain tumors. Child's Nerv Syst: 9:343- 347, 1993.

42. Alexander E III: Glioblastoma Revisited: Do clinical observations match basic science theory? Radiosurgery: Clinical observations. J Neuro-oncology 17: 167-173, 1993.

43. Haregewoin A, Alexander E III, Black P McL, Loeffler JS: Autocrine regulation of the production of the gaseous messenger nitric oxide in a glioblastoma cell line. Experimental Cell Research 210:137-1139, 1994.

44a. Larson DA, Bova F, Eisert D, Kline R, Loeffler J, Lutz W, Mehta M, Palta J, Schewe K, Schultz C, Shaw E, Wilson JF, Lunsford LD, Alexander E, Chapman P, Coffey R, Friedman W, Harsh G IV, Maciunas R, Olivier A, Steinberg G, Walsh J: Consensus statement on stereotactic radiosurgery quality improvement. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:527-530, 1994.

44b. Lunsford LD, Alexander E, Chapman P, Coffey R, Friedman W, Harsh G IV, Maciunas R, Olivier A, Steinberg G, Walsh J, Larson DA, Bova F, Eisert D, Kline R, Loeffler J, Lutz W, Mehta M, Palta J, Schewe K, Schultz C, Shaw E, Wilson JF: Consensus statement on stereotactic radiosurgery quality improvement. Neurosurgery 34:193-195, 1994.

45. Gleason PL, Kikinis R, Altobelli D, Wells W, Alexander E III, Black PM, Jolesz F: Video registration virtual reality for nonlinkage stereotactic surgery. Stereotact Functional Neurosurgery 63 (1-4): 139-143, 1994.

46. Kooy HM, Van Herk M, Barnes PD, Alexander E III, Dunbar SF, Tarbell NJ, Mulkern RV, Holupka EJ, Loeffler JS: Image fusion for stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28:1229-1234, 1994.

47. Wen PY, Alexander E III, Black PM, Fine HA, Riese N, Levin JM, Coleman CN, Loeffler JS: Long term results of stereotactic brachytherapy used in the initial treatment of patients with glioblastomas. Cancer 73:3029-2036, 1994.

48. Riese NE, Loeffler JS, Wen PY, Alexander E III, Black P McL, Coleman CN: A phase I study of etanidazole and radiotherapy in malignant glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 29:617-620, 1994.

49. Hughes-Davies L, Mannarino E, Alexander E III, Kooy H, Loeffler JS: Technical modifications required to treat cervical chemodectomas with stereotactic radiosurgery. Surg Neurol 41:418-420, 1994.

50. Dunbar SF, Tarbell NJ, Kooy HM, Alexander E III, Black P McL, Barnes PD, Goumnerova L, Scott RM, Pomeroy S, LaVally B, Sallan SE, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic radiotherapy for pediatric and adult brain tumors: preliminary report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 30:531-539, 1994.

51. Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Alexander E III: Radiosurgery for glioblastoma multiforme: the importance of selection criteria. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 30:731-733, 1994.

52. Bodis S, Alexander E III, Kooy H, Loeffler JS: The prevention of radiosurgery-induced nausea and vomiting by ondansetron: evidence of a direct effect on the central nervous system chemoreceptor trigger zone. Surg Neurol 42(3):249-252, 1994.

53. Shrieve DC, Tarbell NJ, Alexander E III, Kooy HM, Black PMcL, Dunbar S, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic radiotherapy: a technique for dose optimization and escalation for intracranial tumors. Acta Neurochir 62:55-60, 1994.

54. Alexander E III, Moriarty TM, Davis RB, Wen PY, Fine HA, Black PM, Kooy HM, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic radiosurgery for the definitive, noninvasive treatment of brain metastases. J National Cancer Institute 87 (1):34-40, 1995.

55. Alexander E III, Kooy HM, van Herk M, Schwartz M, Barnes PD, Tarbell N, Mulkern RV, Holupka EJ, Loeffler JS: MRI-Directed stereotactic neurosurgery: Use of image fusion with CT to enhance spatial accuracy. J Neurosurg 83:271-276, 1995.

56. Stokes MA, Soriano SG, Tarbell NJ, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Black PMcL, Rockoff MA: Anesthesia for stereotactic radiosurgery in children. J Neurosurg Anesth, 7:100-108, 1995.

57. Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Wen PY, Fine HA, Kooy HM, Black PM, Loeffler JS: Comparison of stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurg 36(2): 275-284, 1995.

58. Sarkaria JN, Mehta MP, Loeffler JS, Buatti JM, Chappell RJ, Levin AB, Alexander E III, Friedman WA, Kinsella TJ: Radiosurgery in the initial management of malignant gliomas: survival comparison with the RTOG recursive partitioning analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32:931-941, 1995.

59. Schwartz MS, Loeffler JS, Black P McL, Shrieve DC, Wen PY, Fine HA, Alexander E III. Reoperation following radiosurgery of glioblastoma: impact on survival and neurologic status. Radiosurgery 1:141-157, 1996.

60. Moriarty TM, Loeffler JS, Black P McL, Shrieve DC, Wen PY, Fine HA, Kooy HM, Alexander E III. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for single or multiple brain metastases. In: Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS, (eds), Radiosurgery 1995, Karger, Basel, pp 83-91, 1996.

61. Kooy HM, Cosman ER, Harlan RB, Ledoux RJ, Bellerive MR, Hacker FL, Killoran JH, Mannarino EG, Tarbell NJ, Alexander E III, Shrieve DC, Loeffler JS: A dynamic collimator system for conformal stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. In: Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS, (eds), Radiosurgery 1995, Karger, Basel, pp 276-287, 1996.

62. Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Kooy HM, Tarbell NJ, Stieg PE, Wen PY, Black P McL: Stereotactic radiotherapy for meningiomas. In: Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS, (eds), Radiosurgery 1995, Karger, Basel, pp 47- 54, 1996.

63. Schulder M, Loeffler JS, Howes AE, Alexander E III, Black P McL: The radium bomb: Harvey Cushing and the interstitial irradiation of gliomas. J Neurosurg 84:530-532, 1996.

64. Kikinis R, Gleason PL, Moriarty TM, Moore MR, Alexander E III, Stieg PE, Matsumae M, Lorenson WE, Cline HE, Black PM, Jolesz FA: Computer-assisted interactive three-dimensional planning for neurosurgical procedures. Neurosurgery 38 (4): 640-651, 1996.

65. Auchter RM, Lamond JP, Alexander E III, Buatti JM, Chappell R, Friedman WA, Kinsella TJ, Levin AB, Noyes WR, Schultz CJ, Loeffler JS, Mehta MP: A multiinstitutional outcome and prognostic factor analysis of radiosurgery for resectable single brain metastasis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35:27-35, 1996.

66. Alexander E III, Moriarty TM, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery for Metastases. J Neuro Oncol 27:279-285, 1996.

67. Ettinger GJ, Grimson WEl, Leventon ME, Kikinis R, Gugino V, Cote W, Karapelou M, Aglio L, Shenton M, Potts G, Alexander E: Non-invasive functional brain mapping using registered transcranial magnetic stimulation. Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Mathematical Methods in Biomedical Image Analysis, San Francisco, CA, June 21-22, pp. 32-41, 1996.

68. Patrice SJ, Sneed PK, Flickinger JC, Shrieve DC, Pollack BE, Alexander E III, Larson DA, Kondziolka DS, Gutin PH, Wara WM, McDermott MW, Lunsford LD, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery for hemangioblastoma: results of a multiinstitutional experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35:493-499, 1996.

69. Schwartz RB, Holman BL, Garada BM, Carvalho PA, Folkerth R, Schwartz MS, Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Polak JF, Black PM, Alexander E III: Dual isotope single-photon emission computerized tomography used for prediction of histology and survival in patients after high-dose radiotherapy for malignant astrocytoma. Neurosurgical Focus 1(3), Article 1, 1996.

70. Varlotto JM, Shrieve DS, Alexander E III, Kooy HM, Black PMcL, Loeffler JS: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of acoustic neuromas: preliminary results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 36:141-145, 1996.

71. Black PMcL, Alexander E III, Tarbell NJ, Shrieve DS, Goumnerova LC, Loeffler JS: Linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Critical Rev in Neurosurg 6:225-231, 1996.

72. Schulder M, Black PMcL, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: The influence of Harvey Cushing on neuroradiologic therapy. Therapeutic Radiology 201:671-674, 1996.

73. Alexander E III, Moriarty TM, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA: Innovations in minimalism: Intraoperative MRI. Clinical Neurosurgery 43: 338-352, 1996.

74. Schulder M, Black PMcL, Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Permanent low-activity iodine-125 implants for cerebral metastases. J Neuro-Oncology 33:213-221, 1997.

75. Black PM, Moriarty T, Alexander E III, Stieg P, Woodard EJ, Gleason PL, Martin CH, Kikinis R, Schwartz RB, Jolesz FA: Development and implementation of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and its neurosurgical applications. Neurosurgery 41(4): 831- 842, 1997.

76. Nakajima S, Kikinis R, Black PM, Atsumi H, Leventon ME, Hata N, Metcalf DC, Moriarty TM, Alexander E III, Jolesz FA: Image-guided neurosurgery at Brigham & Women's Hospital. In: Computer-Assisted Surgery, Tamaka N, Ehara K, eds. Springer- Verlag, Tokyo, 144-162, 1997.

77. Alexander E III, Moriarty TM, Kikinis R, Black P, Jolesz FM. The present and future role of intraoperative MRI in neurosurgical procedures. Stereotact Functional Neurosurgery 68:10-17, 1997.

78. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery for primary malignant brain tumors. Semin Surg Oncol 14:43-52, 1998.

79. Hakim R, Loeffler JS, Wen PY, Fallon MP, Black PM, Stieg PE, Alexander E III. Linac radiosurgery for meningiomas. In: Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS, (eds), Radiosurgery 2, Karger, Basel, pp 16-24, 1998.

80. Chang EL, Loeffler JS, Riese NE, Wen PY, Alexander E III, Black PM, Coleman CN: Survival results from a phase I study of etanidazole (SR2508) and radiotherapy in patients with malignant glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40(1): 65-70, 1998.

81. Hakim R, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Wen PY, Fallon MP, Stieg PE, Black PM. Results of linar accelerator-based radiosurgery for intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurgery 42(3): 446-454, 1998.

82. Schwartz RB, Holman BL, Polak JF, Garada BM, Schwartz MS, Folkerth R, Carvalho PA, Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Black PM, Alexander E III. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computerized tomography scanning in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: association with patient survival and histopathological characteristics of tumor after high- dose radiotherapy. J Neurosurg 89:60-68, 1998.

83. Schwartz RB, Hsu L, Black PM, Alexander E III, Wong TZ, Klufas RA, Moriarty T, Martin C, Isbister HG, Cahill CD, Spaulding SA, Kanan AR, Jolesz FA. Evaluation of intracranial cysts by intraoperative MR. JMRI 8:807-813, 1998.

84. Potts GF, Gugino LD, Leventon ME, Grimson, EL, Kikinis R, Cote W, Alexander E, et al. Visual hemifield mapping using transcranial magnetic stimulation coregistered with cortical surfaces derivwed from magnetic resonance images. J Clin Neurophysiol 15(4):344-350, 1998.

85. Schwartz RB, Hsu L, Kacher DF, Wong TZ, Alexander E III, Okon S, Guttmann CRG, Black PM, Kelley RA, Moriarty T, Martin C, Isbister HG, Cahill CD, Spaulding SA, Jolesz FA. Intraoperative dynamic MRI: Localization of sites of brain tumor recurrence after high-dose radiotherapy. JMRI 8:1085-1089, 1998.

86. Mitsumori M, Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Kaiser UB, Richardson GE, Black PM, Loeffler JS. Initial clinical results of Linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42(3):573-580, 1998.

87. Potts GF, Gugino LD, Leventon ME, Grimson WE, Kikinis R, Cote W, Alexander E III, Anderson JE, Ettinger GJ, Aglio LS, Shenton ME. Visual Hemifield Mapping Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coregistered With Cortical Surfaces Derived From Magnetic Resonance Images. J Clinical Neurophysiology 15(4): 344-350, 1998.

88. Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Black PM, Wen PY, Fine HA, Kooy HM, Loeffler JS. Treatment of patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme with standard postoperative radiotherapy and radiosurgical boost: prognostic factors and long-term outcome. J Neurosurg 90:72-77, 1999.

89. Schwartz RB, Hsu L, Wong TZ, Kacher DF, Zamani AA, Black PM, Alexander E III, Stieg PE, Moriarty TM, Martin CA, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA. Intraoperative MR imaging guidance for intracranial neurosurgery: experience with the first 200 cases. Radiology 211(2):477-88, 1999.

90. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: The case for radiosurgery. Clin Neurosurg 45:32-40, 1999.

91. Black PM, Alexander E III, Martin C, Moriarty T, Nabavi A, Wong TZ, Schwartz RB, Jolesz F. Craniotomy for tumor treatment in an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging unit. Neurosurgery 45(3): 423-431, 1999.

92. Stieg PE, Friedlander RM, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III: Arteriovenous malformations: Indications for stereotactic radiosurgery. Clin Neurosurg 47:242-248, 2000.

93. Moriarty TM, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Larson PS, Alexander E III, Gleason PL, Schwartz RB, Jolesz FA, Black PM. Frameless stereotactic neurosurgery using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging: stereotactic brain biopsy. Neurosurgery 47(5): 1138-1146, 2000. (Professional Student Author Larson PS)

94. Rauzzino MJ, Tubbs RS, Alexander E III, Grabb PA, Oakes WJ: Spinal neurenteric cysts and their relation to more common aspects of occult spinal dysraphism. Neurosurg Focus 10 (1): Article 2, 2001.

95. Gugino LD, Aglio LS, Potts G, Grimson WEL, Shenton ME, Kikinis R, Alexander E, Gonzalez AA, Romero R, Ettinger GJ, Cote WA, Leventon ME, Black PM. Perioperative Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Techniques in Neurosurgery 7(1): 33-51, 2001.

96. Hodgson DC, Goumnerova LC, Loeffler JS, Dutton S, Black P, Alexander E, Xu R, Silver B, Tarbell NJ. Radiosurgery in the Management of Pediatric Brain Tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 50: 929-935, 2001.

97. Villavicencio AT, Black PM, Shrieve DC, Fallon MP, Alexander E, Loeffler JS. Linac Radiosurgery for Skull Base Meningiomas. Acta Neurochirurgica: 143(11);1141-52, 2001.





Invited Articles: Original Articles, Review Articles, Book Chapters
1. Alexander, E III, Hildreth, DH. Parachuting and Hang Gliding. In: Sports Injuries: Mechanisms, Prevention and Treatment. Richard C. Schneider, John C. Kennedy, Marcus L. Plant (Eds), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1985: 496- 515.

2. Alexander, E III, Black, P McL. Cerebral blood flow and arteriographic vasospasm: Effects of delayed lavage in an experimental canine model. In: Cerebral Vasospasm. (Wilkins, RH, editor) Raven Press, New York. 1988: 395-401.

3. Nashold, BS, Jr., Alexander, E. Neurosurgical treatment of deafferentation pain. In: Handbook of chronic pain management (Tollison, CD, editor), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 1989:125-135.

4. Eben Alexander Jr. Blaine S. Nashold, Jr. Surg Neurol 36: 1-2, 1991.

5. Loeffler JS, Alexander, E III, Kooy, HM, Wen, PY, Fine, HA, Black, PM: Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases. In: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, Update, DeVita V, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA (eds) Lippincott, Phildadelphia 1991: 5(2):1-12.

6. Nashold, BS, Jr., Alexander, E III. Neurosurgical relief of pain. In: Textbook of Surgery (Sabiston, DC, editor), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 1991: 1275-1281.

7. Rossitch E Jr, Carrazana EJ, Moore MR, Alexander E III, Black PM. El Doctor Harvey Cushing: neurocirujano y illustrador medico. Revista Chilena de Cirugia 1991: 43: 94-96.

8. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery using a modified linearaccelerator. In: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America (Lunsford LD, Ed.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1992: 3(1): 167-190.

9. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery for malignant gliomas. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Update (Lunsford LD, Ed.), Elsevier, New York. 1992: 399-406.

10. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Wen PY, Fine HA, Kooy HM, Black PM: Radiosurgery for brain metastases: Five year experience at the Brigham & Women's Hospital. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery Update (Lunsford LD, Ed.), Elsevier, New York. 1992: 383- 392.

11. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III: The role of radiation therapy in the management of astrocytomas. In: Astrocytomas: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Biology. Black P McL, Schoene W, Lampson L (eds), Blackwell, Boston, 1993, pp 73-85.

12. Black P McL, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Tarbell NJ, Fine HA, Wen PY, Scott RM, Sallan SE, Moore MR: Cerebral Hemisphere Astrocytomas. In: Astrocytomas: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Biology. Black P McL, Schoene W, Lampson L (eds), Blackwell, Boston, 1993, pp 151-165.

13. Loeffler JS, Tarbell NJ, Dunbar SF, Kooy H, Mannarino E, Bellerive M, Svensson GK, Alexander E III: The potential role of stereotactic radiotherapy in the management of intracranial lesions. Varian 14th Users' Meeting Proceedings, 1992, pp 8-10.

14. Lunsford LD, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: General Introduction: History of Radiosurgery. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, Chapter 1, pp 1-4.

15. Fontanesi J, Loeffler JS, Alexander E III: Pediatric Tumors. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, Chapter 15, pp 189-196.

16. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III: Radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial metastases. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, Chapter 16, pp 197-206.

17. Alexander E III, Coffey R, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery for Gliomas. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, Chapter 17, pp 207-219.

18. Alexander E III, Lindquist C: Special indications: Radiosurgery for functional neurosurgery and epilepsy. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, Chapter 18, pp 221-225.

19. Alexander E III, Leavitt DD, Kooy HM: Future directions: Linear accelerators. In: Stereotactic Radiosurgery. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD, (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993, Chapter 21, pp 243-248.

20. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Kooy HM, Black P McL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy: rationale, techniques and early results. In: Stereotactic Surgery and Radiosurgery, DeSalles AAF, Goetsch SJ (eds): Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, 1993, pp 307-320.

21. Alexander E III, Black P McL, Wen PY, Fine H, Loeffler JS: Results of radiosurgery versus brachytherapy for malignant gliomas. In: Stereotactic Surgery and Radiosurgery, DeSalles AAF, Goetsch SJ (eds): Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, 1993, pp 455-461.

22. Loeffler, JS, Alexander E III: Radiosurgery in the definitive management of CNS malignancies. In: Organ Conservation in Curative Cancer Treatment, Meyer JL andVaeth JM (eds), Karger, Basel. Frontiers Radiation Therapy and Oncology 27: 227- 244, 1993.

23. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic radiotherapeutic approaches: Overview. In: Mauch P and Loeffler JS (eds), Radiation Oncology: Technology and Biology, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994, pp 193-197.

24. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Kooy HM: Stereotactic Radiosurgery, In: Pell MF and Thomas DGT, (eds), Handbook of Stereotaxy Using the CRW Apparatus: Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1994, pp 179-192.

25. Wen PY, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic radiosurgery treats intracranial lesions. Diagnostic Imaging. May, 1994, pp 76-107.

26. Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Tarbell NJ, Alexander E III: External stereotactic radiation techniques for intracranial lesions. In: Kogelnik HD (ed): Progress in Radio- Oncology V, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, pp 389-396, 1995.

27. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Stereotactic radiosurgical treatment of primary brain tumors, In: Haines SJ, Cohen A (eds): Minimally Invasive Techniques in Neurosurgery, Volume 7, Concepts in Neurosurgery, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1995, pp. 133- 138.

28. Loeffler JS, Shrieve DC, Wen PY, Fine HA, Kooy HM, Addesa AE, Black PM, Alexander E III: Radiosurgery for intracranial malignancies, In: Schwade J (ed) : Seminars in Radiation Oncology, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 5:225-234, 1995.

29. Black PM, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: New treatments for metastatic brain tumors. In: M Salcman, (ed): Current Techniques in Neurosurgery, 2nd Edition, Current Medicine, Philadelphia, pp. 151-156, 1995.

30. Wen PY, Fine HA, Black PM, Shrieve DC, Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: High-grade astrocytomas. In: Wen PY and Black PM (eds): Brain Tumors in Adults, Neurologic Clinics of North America, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 13(4):875-900, 1995.

31. Alexander E III: Skull Base Tumors, In: Samuels MA, Feske S (eds): Office Practice of Neurology, Churchill Livingstone, pp 875-878, 1996.

32. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgical treatment of intracranial metastases. In: Controversies in Neurosurgery. Al-Mefty O, Origitano TC, Harkey HL (eds), Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, pp. 49-54, 1996.

33. Moriarty TM, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Black PM, Alexander E III: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Therapy: Intraoperative MR Imaging, In: Maciunas, RJ (ed): Clinical Frontiers of Interactive Image-Guided Neurosurgery. Neurosurgical Clinics of North America 7(2), W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp. 323-331, 1996.

34. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Recurrent brain metastases. In: Harsh GR IV (ed). Neurosurgical Clinics of North America, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 517-526, 1996.

35. Jolesz FA, Hsu L, Schwartz RB, Zamani AA, Moriarty TM, Alexander E III, Black PM, Wells W, Kikinis R. MRI-guided neuro-interventions. American Society of Neuroradiology, pp 218-219, 1996.

36. Schwartz RB, Moriarty TM, Alexander E III, Black PM, Ainslie MD, Isbister HG, Jolesz FA. Interactive MR-guided intervention of brain lesions. American Society of Neuroradiology, pp 36-37, 1996.

37. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Clinical experience with linac radiosurgery, In: Gildenberg P, Tasker R (eds): Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, pp 745-756, 1997.

38. Nakajima S, Kikinis R, Atsumi H, Leventon M, Hata N, Metcalf D, Moriarty T, Alexander E, Black P, Jolesz F: Image-guided neurosurgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital, In: Tamaki N and Ehara K(ed) Computer-Assisted Neurosurgery, Springer-Verlag Tokyo: 144-162, 1997.

39. Schwartz RB, Hsu L, Black PM, Alexander E III, Stieg PE, Moriarty T, Isbister HG, Cahill CD, Jolesz FA: The value of intraoperative MRI in intercranial procedures, In: Interventional MR: Techniques and clinical experience, FA Jolesz and Ian R Young, Editors. Martin Dunitz Ltd, London, pp. 419-430, 1998.

40. Alexander E III, Kikinis R, Black PM, Jolesz F: Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, In: Barnett GH, Maciunas R, Roberts D, (eds): Image-Guided Neurosurgery: Clinical Applications of Interactive Surgical Navigation, Quality Medical Publishers, Inc. St. Louis, MO, pp 215-227, 1998.

41. Moriarty TM, Alexander E III, Stieg PE, Woodard E, Jolesz FA, Black PM. MR guided neurosurgery. Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, eds. Darzi A, Gedroyc W, Gould S. ISIS Medical Press, Oxford, England, 1999.

42. Moriarty TM, Jolesz FA, Alexander E III, Stieg PE, Woodard EJ, Schwartz R, Black PM. Intra-operative MRI for Neurosurgery. Interventional MRI, ed. Lufkin RB, Mosby, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 255-262,1999.

43. Alexander E III, Nashold, BS: A History of Neurosurgical Navigation, In: Alexander E III, Maciunas RJ: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York, 1999, pp. 3-14.

44. Alexander, E III, Garada B, Schwartz RB, Hill JW, Kooy HM: Fusion of Imaging Modalities: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography and Angiography, In: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York,. pp. 125-136, 1999.

45. Nakajima S, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, Atsumi H, Leventon ME, Grimson EL, Hata, N, Metcalf DC, Moriarty TM, Black, PM, Garada B, Alexander E III: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reconstruction for Surgical Planning and Guidance, In: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York, 1999, pp. 137-145.

46. Gugino LD, Potts GF, Aglio LS, Alexander E III, Grimson E, Kikinis R, Shenton ME, Black PM, Ettinger Gil, Cote W, Leventon M, Gonzalez AA: Localization of Eloquent Cortex Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, In: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York, 1999, pp.163-199.

47. Maciunas RJ, Alexander E III, Hill JW: Stereotactic Frame-Based Guidance of Craniotomies: Cosman-Roberts-Wells System, In: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York, 1999, pp. 289-300.

48. Alexander E III, Hill JW, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery for Malignant Brain Tumors, In Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York,, pp. 427-441, 1999.

49. Alexander E III, Black PM, Martin CH, Kikinis R, Hill JW, Jolesz FA: Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, In: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York,, pp. 530- 538, 1999.

50. Maciunas RJ, Alexander E III: Future Advances in Neurosurgical Navigation, In: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation, Edited by Alexander E III and Maciunas RJ, Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York, pp. 585-588, 1999.

51. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: The role of radiosurgery for glial neoplasms. Neurosurg Clin N Am: 10(2):351-8, 1999.

52. Black PM, Martin CH, Alexander E III, Moriarty T, Stieg PA, Woodard E, Schwartz R, Wong T, Jolesz F. Imaging of the nervous system during surgery: General considerations and limitations. In: Neurosurgery: The scientific basis of clinical practice (Edition 3), (Chapter Number 58), Edited by Crockard A, Hayward R and Hoff JT, (Vol 2) Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp. 867-876, 2000.

53. Martin C, Alexander E III, Jolesz F, Black PM. Surgery in the MRI environment, In: Operative Neurosurgery, Edited by Andrew H. Kaye and Peter McL. Black, Churchill-Livingstone, London, pp. 185-198, 2000.

54. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS. Radiosurgery for metastases, In: Operative Neurosurgery, Edited by Andrew H. Kaye and Peter McL. Black, Churchill-Livingstone, London, pp. 407-416, 2000.

55. Alexander E III. Optimizing brain tumor resection: Midfield interventional MR imaging. In: MR-Guided Therapy in Neurosurgery,: Edited by Truwit C. Neuroimaging Clin N Am: 11 (4): 659-672, 2001.

56. Stieg PE, Friedlander RM. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III. Arteriovenous malformations: indications for stereotactic radiosurgery. Clinical Neurosurgery. 36 (47) 242-248, 2001.

57. Alexander E III. Linac Radiosurgery, In: Youmans Neurological Surgery, Edited by HR Winn, Saunders-Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp. 4111-4116, 2004.

Books And Supplements
1. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Gildenberg PL, Franklin PO (Eds): Radiosurgery: Enhancement of Clinical Excellence. In: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery: 57(1): 112 pp, 1992.

2. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS, Lunsford LD (Eds): StereotacticRadiosurgery. McGraw-Hill, New York, 272 pp., 1993.

3. Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery 1995, Karger, Basel, 350 pp, 1996.

4. Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS: Radiosurgery 1997, Karger, Basel, 268 pp, 1998.

5. Alexander E III, Maciunas RJ: Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation,Thieme Medical, Stuttgart, New York, 605 pp, 1999.

6. Alexander E III, Kondziolka D, Lindquist C, Loeffler JS, Smee R:Radiosurgery 1999, Karger, Basel, 293 pp, 2000.

Letters
1. Alexander, E III: Mild to Moderate head injury, Eds JT Hoff, TE Anderson, TM Cole. Boston, Blackwell Scientific, 1989 (Book review). New Eng. J. Med. pp 282 7/26/1990

2. Loeffler, JS, Alexander, E III, Larson, D: Stereotactic radiation for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (letter). N Engl J Med, 1990: 323(23): 1636.

3. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III: Critique of stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations using a standard linear accelerator. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 18:1536,1990.

4. Alexander E III, Loeffler JS: Comment: Stereotactic radiosurgery of angiographically occult vascular malformations: Indications and preliminary experience. Neurosurgery 27: 900, 1990.

5. Loeffler JS, Alexander E III, Fine HA, Wen PY, Kooy HM, Black P McL,Shea WM: Use of radiosurgery in the treatment of malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol 2:195, 1993.

6. Alexander E III, Mulkern RV, Loeffler JS: Accuracy of stereotaxis. J Neurosurgery 84:303-304, 1996

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PostWed Oct 10, 2012 4:22 pm » by Poooooot


Spock wrote:Deleted what I wrote out of guilty conscience :sunny:


You have to respect non-believers' right to not believe, just as you expect them to respect your right to believe. Respect goes both ways, good sir.
Matthew 7
“Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.

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PostWed Oct 10, 2012 4:23 pm » by Spock


Now what fun is that?

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PostWed Oct 10, 2012 4:24 pm » by Poooooot


Spock wrote:Now what fun is that?

:lol: Okay, okay. You got me there. :lol:
Matthew 7
“Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.

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PostWed Oct 10, 2012 4:25 pm » by Tuor10


Very interesting read.

Some say Ghosts are souls that haven't crossed over; but could it be that the consciousness of a person has the potential to linger in the material realm, not knowing that the physical body had died?



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