Mysterious Antarctica stories...

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PostWed Jul 11, 2012 10:15 pm » by Yuya63


Interesting topic!! Good to see you came back Vulcanic :flop:

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PostWed Jul 11, 2012 10:27 pm » by Vulcanic


Yuya63 wrote:Interesting topic!! Good to see you came back Vulcanic :flop:



Thank you yuya:) just wish snake was here to keep adding to it :(, but i got few more things i can add to this :)
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PostWed Jul 11, 2012 10:53 pm » by Yuya63


I wish a bunch of you "old guard" were here. But, we take what we can get... :lol:

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PostWed Jul 11, 2012 11:54 pm » by Vulcanic


Yuya63 wrote:I wish a bunch of you "old guard" were here. But, we take what we can get... :lol:



lol :D :flop:
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PostThu Jul 12, 2012 12:08 am » by -Marduk-


Warm Snap Turned Antarctica Green Around the Edges

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An unexpectedly warm period about 15 million years ago temporarily thawed Antarctica, turning the continent green around its edges, a new study says. Antarctica developed its ice sheets about 34 million years ago. But during the more recent warm period, the interior landscape would've resembled tundra found in parts of modern-day Chile and New Zealand, and the coasts would've been lined with beeches and a type of conifer. The surprising evidence comes from "abundant" remains of leaf waxes in sediment cores taken from deep beneath Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf, said study leader Sarah Feakins, a biogeochemist at the University of Southern California. The sediments had blown off Antarctic soils into the ocean during the Miocene, a mild period in Earth's history between about 15 and 20 million years ago.

Not only were the leaf wax remnants numerous—suggesting many plants were growing on Antarctic coasts—but an analysis of their chemistry revealed the continent was warmer than thought, Feakins said. Previous research from sediment cores hinted that Antarctica was about five degrees Fahrenheit (three degrees Celsius) warmer on average during the Miocene than it is today. But the new study revealed that Antarctic temperatures were 20 degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius) warmer—which means the Antarctic coast would have been about 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7 degrees Celsius) on a summer day. "We knew the Miocene was a warm period, but it was a surprise to see how warm it got," Feakins said.

more :arrow: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news ... e-ancient/
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PostThu Jul 12, 2012 2:01 am » by Hersche


Nilm33 wrote:Great thread. I dont know if this has been added but ive always wondered if it was legit, because if it is, then its the smoking gun...

tons of photos, charts and maps from antarctic expeditions. Also a map of the inside earth. Nazis I believe. If its a hoax its a damn good one!


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Thanks for posting this, a lot of reused info and documents, but its well put together. Never wished I knew how to read German before today.

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PostThu Jul 12, 2012 2:11 am » by Vulcanic


Marduk2012 wrote:Warm Snap Turned Antarctica Green Around the Edges

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An unexpectedly warm period about 15 million years ago temporarily thawed Antarctica, turning the continent green around its edges, a new study says. Antarctica developed its ice sheets about 34 million years ago. But during the more recent warm period, the interior landscape would've resembled tundra found in parts of modern-day Chile and New Zealand, and the coasts would've been lined with beeches and a type of conifer. The surprising evidence comes from "abundant" remains of leaf waxes in sediment cores taken from deep beneath Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf, said study leader Sarah Feakins, a biogeochemist at the University of Southern California. The sediments had blown off Antarctic soils into the ocean during the Miocene, a mild period in Earth's history between about 15 and 20 million years ago.

Not only were the leaf wax remnants numerous—suggesting many plants were growing on Antarctic coasts—but an analysis of their chemistry revealed the continent was warmer than thought, Feakins said. Previous research from sediment cores hinted that Antarctica was about five degrees Fahrenheit (three degrees Celsius) warmer on average during the Miocene than it is today. But the new study revealed that Antarctic temperatures were 20 degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius) warmer—which means the Antarctic coast would have been about 45 degrees Fahrenheit (7 degrees Celsius) on a summer day. "We knew the Miocene was a warm period, but it was a surprise to see how warm it got," Feakins said.

more :arrow: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news ... e-ancient/


nice story marduk thank you :flop:
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PostThu Jul 12, 2012 2:15 am » by Vulcanic


Two New Dinosaurs Discovered in Antarctica

Working in some of the planet's harshest conditions, fossil hunters have found two completely new species of dinosaur in Antarctica. This increases to eight the number of dinosaur species found on the perpetually frozen southern landmass.

The discoveries, made in December, were recently revealed by the National Science Foundation, the body that coordinates U.S. research in Antarctica


The first, a 190 million-year-old plant-eater from the early Jurassic period, was found by chance on December 7—13,000 feet (3,900 meters) up a mountain. A mountaineer accompanying paleontologists turned up the animal's huge pelvis in an informal search only a few miles from the South Pole.

Two thousand miles (3,200 kilometers) across the continent, and less than a week later, the scant remains of another dinosaur were found—completely by chance—on what once was the bottom of a shallow ocean. This 70-million-year-old dinosaur is the only known Antarctic meat-eater from the late Cretaceous period and is thought to have unusually primitive features for this period. Paleontologists had to trek 8 miles daily (13 kilometers) across treacherous ice floes to reach it.


"We don't get many opportunities to go to Antarctica and there is a short weather window of opportunity each time," said veteran dinosaur hunter Judd Case of St. Mary's College of California in Moraga. Case was on the team that made the coastal discovery. "Yet [Antarctica] consistently turns up new surprises as far as life on Earth goes," he said.

Migration Route

Little is known about the dinosaurs that once roamed what is now Antarctica. All fossils found so far are from the margins of coastal islands or exposed mountain rock faces—the few places free of a thick ice layer. But the continent was not always so cold.

Antarctica has sat at much the same latitude for the last hundred million years. But during the Cretaceous it enjoyed a warmer, lusher climate, similar to that of the U.S. Pacific Northwest today. (The Cretaceous period started 144 million years ago and ended 65 million years ago.)

Case, his co-worker James Martin, and their team originally set out to test a theory about the migration of extinct animals by looking for marsupial fossils on Vega Island, just off the Antarctic Peninsula (the peninsula juts towards South America).

The earliest marsupials are known to be from North America, but their later representatives, and some dinosaurs, are known to be from Australia alone. The researchers believe that animals may have migrated from the Americas, through a warmer Antarctica, and on to Australia. All three continents were likely linked by land bridges during the late Cretaceous.

However, harsh weather trapped the team's boat in ice, and they were unable to pursue their original goal, Martin said. He is a paleontologist at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.

Disheartened, the team stopped off on James Ross Island instead. The rocks here are made up of sediments laid down in an ancient sea. As such, the team did not expect to discover fossils of any land animals here, said Martin.


But alongside the typical clams, ammonites (dinosaur-era mollusks), and other sea life, the team started to find some more exotic fragments. Slowly the legs, feet, and portions of the jaws and teeth of a carnivorous dinosaur began to appear. The dead animal had likely been washed out to sea and had settled on the bottom of what would have been the Weddell Sea 70 million or so years ago.


Currently known as the Naze theropod, after the Naze region of the island where it was found, the coastal dinosaur is estimated to have stood just 6 to 8 feet (1.8 to 2.4 meters) tall in life. Theropods are the group of dinosaurs to which allosaurs, tyrannosaurs, and velociraptors belong. Another Antarctic therapod, a large carnosaur, is known, from the previous discovery of a single bone.

In some ways however, the newfound coastal dinosaur was very different from its late Cretaceous contemporaries. "It represents a group of dinosaurs that is rather primitive," Case said. "[The leg bones] have not been fused to the … foot, as in more advanced theropods and birds." The teeth are also unusual, he said.

The dinosaurs discovered in Antarctica so far present a kind of "relic fauna," Case said, with most groups more commonly associated with other regions at earlier times.


One theory is that newly successful flowering plants were slower to colonize the Antarctic than other continents—possibly because the landmass was cloaked in total darkness for so many months of the year.

During the late Cretaceous, Antarctica was still smothered with the cycads, palms, and ginkos. In other regions these plants were more typically found during an earlier period, the Jurassic. This may explain why older dinosaur types persisted in Antarctica. (The Jurassic period started 210 million years ago and ended 144 million years ago.)

"Wimpy" Sauropod

The discovery of a new sauropod from the 13,000-foot-high (4,000-meter-high) peak of Mount Kirkpatrick, near to Antarctica's Beardmore glacier, was almost as fortuitous as the coastal find.

Fossil hunter William Hammer, of Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois, and his team, had flown hundreds of miles inland by helicopter to continue the excavation of a dinosaur they discovered there in 1991. Cryolophosaurus ellioti (an early Jurassic carnivore) was embedded in solid rock, in a site that was a soft riverbed 200 million years ago.

While Hammer's team busied themselves with the specimen in hand, mountain safety guide Peter Braddock scoured the area in a casual search for other fossils. "I jokingly said to him 'Keep your eyes down; look for weird things in the rock,'" Hammer recounted.

Braddock found something weird indeed—part of an enormous pelvis, much bigger than the corresponding bones of Cryolophosaurus.

A lot more of this animal, including much of its vertebral column (up to 3,000 pounds, or 1,400 kilograms, of fossil) is being shipped back to the U.S. for analysis. However, a preliminary investigation suggests that the sauropod would have been 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 meters) tall and 30 feet (9 meters) in length. Dated to 190 million years old, "the new fossil is from a key time to learn about the early evolution of dinosaur groups," Hammer said.

This may be the largest dinosaur ever found in Antarctica and perhaps the oldest, he said. Even so, compared to later four-legged, plant-eating sauropods (such as brachiosaurs and Diplodocus), the new species is "kinda wimpy," Hammer said. Some sauropods may have reached a whopping 100 feet (30 meters) in length.

Antarctic dinosaurs may have been different in other ways that scientists do not yet understand, said St. Mary's College of California's Case. Some Australian dinosaurs from far southerly latitudes appear to have large eyes, useful in a nocturnal habitat, he said. Future fossil finds may offer clues as to how these animals were adapted to the six months of darkness, which still today restricts Antarctic researchers and all life in polar regions.

"I have no doubt that there is a tremendous fossil record buried under the ice sheet," Case said. "There have already been large numbers of fossil plants and animals recovered," he said, despite the fact that less than 5 per cent of the landmass is exposed for prospecting and finding fossils.
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PostThu Jul 12, 2012 2:17 am » by Vulcanic


Huge Underwater Volcanoes Discovered Near Antarctica

A string of a dozen volcanoes, at least several of them active, has been found beneath the frigid seas near Antarctica, the first such discovery in that region.

Some of the peaks tower nearly 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) above the ocean floor — nearly tall enough to break the water's surface.

"That's a big volcano. That's a very big volcano. If that was on land it would be quite remarkable," said Philip Leat, a vulcanologist with the British Antarctic Survey who led a seafloor mapping expedition to the region in 2007 and 2010.

The group of 12 underwater mountains lies south of the South Sandwich Islands — desolate, ice-covered volcanoes that rise above the southern Atlantic Ocean about halfway between South America and South Africa and erupted as recently as 2008. It's the first time such a large number of undersea volcanoes has been found together in the Antarctic region.

Leat said the survey team was somewhat surprised by the find.

"We knew there were other volcanoes in the area, but we didn't go trying to find volcanoes," Leat told OurAmazingPlanet. "We just went because there was a big blank area on the map and we had no idea what was there; we just wanted to fill in the seafloor."

Seafloor surprise

The team did so, thanks to ship-borne seafloor mapping technology, and not without a few hair-raising adventures.

Leat said the images of the seafloor appear before your eyes on screens as the ship moves through the water. "So it's very exciting," he said. "You go along and suddenly you see the bottom start to rise up underneath you, and you don't know how shallow it's going to get."

At one point, in the dead of night, the team encountered a volcano so large it looked as though the RRS James Clark Ross, the team's research vessel, might actually crash into the hidden summit. "It was quite frightening, actually," Leat said.

The researchers stopped the ship and decided to return in daylight. The onboard instruments revealed that some of the peaks rise within 160 feet (50 meters) of the ocean's surface. [Related: The World's Biggest Oceans and Seas]

Volcanoes confirmed

Though the peaks are largely invisible without the aid of 3-D mapping technology, scientists can tell they're volcanoes.

Leat said their conelike silhouette is a dead giveaway. "There's no other way of getting that shape on the seafloor," he said. In addition, the researchers dredged up rocky material from several peaks and found it rife with volcanic ash, lumps of pumice and black lava.

The find backed up reports from a ship that visited the area in 1962, which indicated a hidden volcano had erupted in the region.

Leat's biologist colleagues discovered some interesting creatures living in the hot-spring-like conditionsnear the underwater mountains, and news on that will be forthcoming, Leat said.

Despite the frozen, isolated conditions, Leat said the expeditions were far from boring. Quite the opposite, in fact. Each moment, a hidden world never before seen by humans unfolded before their eyes.

"It's amazing," Leat said, "and you can hardly go to bed at night because you want to see what's happening."
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PostThu Jul 12, 2012 2:18 am » by -Marduk-


Vulcanic wrote:Nice story marduk thank you :flop:


Ure welcome bro.

:cheers:
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