The Secret To Happiness May Have Been Discovered Almost Two Millennia Ago

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One of the greatest texts about happiness and living well wasn't written by a self-help expert, spiritual leader or psychologist. It was written by Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, and it may completely change your perspective on dealing with life's challenges.

In 167 AD, Aurelius wrote The Meditations, a 12-book compendium of personal writings, originally written in Greek, that reflect his extensive study of Stoic philosophy. Aurelius is now regarded as one of the most famous proponents and philosophers of Stoicism, an ancient Greek and Roman school of thought originating in the Hellenic period concerned with how to cultivate a mindset to deal effectively with any events or emotions.

Meditations is based around a single, simple precept: “You have power over your mind -- not outside events. Realize this, and you will find strength.”

The last of the Five Good Emperors, Aurelius ruled over Rome for 20 years until the time of his death in 180 AD. He is widely regarded as one of the most respected emperors in Roman history.

"Marcus Aurelius was a true paradox -- an emperor with almost unlimited power to control his world and circumstances, who nevertheless had a deep understanding that happiness and peace do not lie in the outside world," Arianna Huffington writes in her forthcoming book, Thrive: The Third Metric To Redefining Success And Creating A Life Of Well-Being, Wisdom And Wonder.

Meditations is "undoubtedly one of history's most effective formulas for overcoming every negative situation we may encounter in life," Ryan Holiday writes in The Obstacle Is The Way.

Never got a chance to read Meditations? Here are five of the most important takeaways from the Roman Emperor's magnum opus.

Your own happiness is up to you.

Life's happiness, Aurelius said, "depends upon the quality of your thoughts.”

The crux of his philosophy is the notion that while we cannot control what happens to us, we can control our reactions to the events of our lives -- and this gives us immense strength and freedom.

It's easier said than done, yes, but Aurelius's own life is proof positive of this maxim. The emperor faced great struggles throughout his life, and his reign was marred by near-constant warfare and disease. His brother and parents also died at a young age.

Aurelius learned how to live within his soul -- or "inner citadel," as he put it -- a place of peace and equanimity. Living from this space, he believed, gave him the freedom to shape his own life by controlling his thoughts.

Life may not give you what you want, but it will give you what you need.

Aurelius accepted that trials and challenges were an unavoidable part of life, but his belief that life and the universe were fundamentally good helped him to accept the tough stuff ( via ).

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