Ancient Mysteries

Enuma Elish – Creation of the World and of Mankind

Enuma Elish – Creation of the World and of Mankind

Enuma Elish is the creation myth in the Sumerian-Babylonian religions. His name, Enuma Elish, is a beginning (the first words of the narrative) just like in the Hebrew Bible. If in the Old Testament, the name of the book is an arbitrary name that is used for quotations (the first book is Genesis, in the Bible, "Genesis", the second book being Exodus, in the Bible "Exodus", etc.), the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh ) uses the Sumerian-Babylonian method, the name of the book being the quotation of the first words (beginning). Genesis becomes Bereshit, Exodus becomes Shmot, and so on.

At the beginning of the world, the waters of the sweet ocean Apsu and the salty knee Tiamat mix indistinctly, the two original gods complementing Mummu, whose identity is the subject of dispute to this day. It is generally believed to have been a maternal name of Tiamat, things being unclear since, in a later sequence of the poem, Mummu appears as an intriguing and hostile advisor to Apsu: as a distinct person, therefore, the opposite of Tiamat.

Oldest Cookbook Cooking
The Babylonian clay tablet was written in Akkadian, containing the oldest known cooking recipes.

From the mixed waters of Apsu and Tiamat are conceived the other gods, Ansar, the upper half of the world then conceiving the mighty Anu, the father of Nudinmud or She, the great god of waters. The commotion of the newborn gods disturbed Tiamat's silence, but more upset is Apsu, disturbed by the irreverent laughter of the young gods. Exasperated, Apsu calls his advisor, Mummu, and they both go to Tiamat to complain, demanding the destruction of the new gods, a demonstration of power to which Tiamat does not consent, on the grounds that what had just been created should not be destroyed.

However, the Mummu counsellor convinces Apsu to destroy the young gods, the plot being found out by Her, who draws a magic circle around the two, depriving them of power and killing them. Over the corpse of Apsu, She builds a sanctuary house, also called Apsu, where she accompanies the goddess Darnkina, to give birth to the luminous Marduk, a dual deity, like Janus from Roman mythology, with four eyes and as many ears, " the son of the Sun-God, the Sun-god of the gods ".

Confident of their power by the birth of Marduk, the young gods proceeded to neutralize Tiamat; the celestial Anu, the god of the upper world, gives birth to the tumultuous winds, which he sends against Tiamat, to frustrate his rest. Instigated by her Chthonian sons - divine belligerence betraying, in fact, the opposition between the Uranian and Chthonian gods.

Tiamat reacts elementally, devising a formidable defence army of unclassifiable hybrid animals (snake-monsters, flying dragons, vipers, sphinxes, sea lions, mad dogs, the scorpion man), at the head of which she installs in a position of sovereignty one of her sons, the fierce Kingu, who receives from his mother the Tablets of Destiny, thus becoming invincible and master over the joints of the world.


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